Dentist’s Therapy Dog Is So Proud When He Does A Good Job

At a Zanesville, Ohio, dental practice, one member of the staff makes people actually look forward to their appointments. 

A few days a week, a 1-year-old Labradoodle named Dwight goes to work with his mom, a dental hygenist, at Sulens Dental Studio. The mild-tempered pup greets anxious patients and helps take their mind off their fears. 

Dwight the therapy dog comforts a patient
Jensen McVey

Dwight began his training as a therapy dog at 12 weeks old and continues to practice with trainers twice a week at his puppy school and the dental office. But from the moment his mom brought him home, she knew he’d be perfect for the job.

“Dwight was definitely born to be a therapy dog,” Jensen McVey, Dwight’s trainer, told The Dodo. “He is extremely sweet and has never met a stranger!”

Therapy dog helps out at dentist's office
Jensen McVey

“Dwight can definitely get excited and play when the time calls for it but otherwise he is a calm cuddle bug,” he added. “Dwight is so much fun to work with and every one of my employees loves working with him and loves seeing him come in.”

Jensen McVey

According to one study, as many as 36 percent of people suffer from dental fear. But Dwight is doing everything he can to help change people’s perception of sitting in the dentist’s chair. Therapy dogs can positively change people’s mood and anxiety — even reducing their perception of pain.

Dwight’s job starts as soon as the patient walks in. He runs to greet them at the door with a big smile and a wagging tail. If the patient needs a little extra help, Dwight is happy to comfort them during their cleaning or procedure.

Jensen McVey

“He helps to create a fun experience for scared children coming in and provides overall comfort for those in the office,” McVey said. “He is also trained to gently lay and apply pressure for nervous patients or to gently place his paws up so people can pet him and take their mind off of being at the dentist.”

Jensen McVey

For all his hard work, Dwight gets paid in treats and a monthly BarkBox. But the pup is happiest when he can spend time with his dental family — helping people feel a little bit better every day.

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California Prop 14 may change lives of sick kids, keep taxpayer funding of stem cell therapy research

Three-year-old Ava was constantly sick. Her gums were inflamed, and every time she got a scraped knee, it turned into a dangerous infection.

Her parents, Alicia and Jon Langenhop, were months pregnant with their third child when they learned that Ava’s constellation of symptoms added up to an extremely rare, inherited disorder of the white blood cells, called leukocyte adhesion deficiency-1. Although antibiotics and antivirals could prolong her life, the disease was considered fatal, usually before kindergarten.

Ava’s primary hope, doctors told the Langenhops, was a bone marrow transplant from someone who was a good match, probably a brother or a sister.

Two-year-old Olivia had inherited the same disease as her big sister. She had been hospitalized with infections, too.

The baby in Alicia’s belly would be the girls’ best hope. Since both parents were carriers of the rare genetic mutation, the new baby, a boy, had a 25% chance of inheriting it, too.

Alicia was still in the hospital last October when they found out baby Landon had the mutation. Around the same time, the couple learned of a research trial in California.

Children Ava, Olivia and Landon Langenhop were diagnosed with an extremely rare, inherited disorder of the white blood cells, called leukocyte adhesion deficiency-1. California Proposition 14, a citizen-initiated ballot measure, authorizes bonds continuing stem cell research.
Children Ava, Olivia and Landon Langenhop were diagnosed with an extremely rare, inherited disorder of the white blood cells, called leukocyte adhesion deficiency-1. California Proposition 14, a citizen-initiated ballot measure, authorizes bonds continuing stem cell research.

Doctors would take each child’s blood cells, fix the mutation and return them. It should be a permanent fix, with less risk than a bone marrow transplant because the healthy cells would be their own, so their bodies wouldn’t reject them as foreign.  

The approach had been tried in only one child, though.

This is the type of research reaching patients nearly two decades after President George W. Bush banned federal funding of stem cell research and 16 years after California residents approved a tax increase on themselves to support research.

Proposition 14 on Tuesday’s ballot asks whether Californians want to continue this work, providing $5.5 billion for stem cell research over the next three decades.

In the early 2000s, stem cell research was controversial because it often required the destruction of human embryos. Though embryonic stem cells remain essential for some therapies, in cases such as the Langenhops’, treatment focuses on manipulating a person’s own cells.

Stem cell science has made tremendous progress, but as in most new fields, the pace remains painstakingly slow. Every treatment has to be the subject of years of trial-and-error research, and many scientific hurdles linger. 

Stem cells have been used to treat rare diseases, such as severe combined immunodeficiency, also known as “bubble boy disease,” and they are being tested in more common conditions such as Parkinson’s disease, macular degeneration, Type 1 diabetes and even heart disease.

“Even if a subset of stuff in the pipeline goes all the way, it will change the world for patients who currently don’t have other good options,” said Sean Morrison, a stem cell biologist in Dallas.

“It’s a pivotal time in the field,” said

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Novartis Expands Presence in Gene Therapy With Acquisition

– By Barry Cohen

Novartis AG (NYSE:NVS) is expanding its gene therapy footprint by acquiring a venture capital-backed company focusing on treating vision loss that can lead to blindness.

The Swiss pharmaceutical giant will pay shareholders of Vedere Bio $150 million upfront, which could be boosted by $130 million more if the Cambridge, Massachusetts-based company’s programs achieve several development milestones.

Novartis has made huge strides aimed at beefing up its gene therapy program. In 2018, the company bought AveXis for $8.7 billion, inheriting its spinal muscular atrophy therapy Zolgensma, and this year established partnerships with Dyno Therapeutics and Sangamo Therapeutics Inc. (NASDAQ:SGMO).

Vedere is trying to take naturally occurring, light-sensing proteins and use a special gene therapy method to inject them into a certain part of the eye. Once there, they will be sent to retinal cells that are still healthy to help improve the vision of patients, according to an article in BioPharma Dive.

Novartis thinks this approach has much broader uses. The company said the proteins, in conjunction with Vedere’s delivery tools, could “vastly expand” the number of treatable patients with vision loss from photoreceptor death.

Investors should keep in mind that the Vedere treatments are still in the pre-clinical stage so a great deal of development still needs to be done. Working with the acquisition’s scientists, Novartis is preparing to promptly begin human testing.

Novartis Expands Presence in Gene Therapy With Acquisition
Novartis Expands Presence in Gene Therapy With Acquisition

There could be an even bigger population the Vedere platform could address, beyond inherited eye disorders. That would be a new way to treat geographic atrophy, one of the more advanced forms of an age-related vision loss called dry age-related macular degeneration. The American Academy of Ophthalmology notes an estimated 15 million people in North America have AMD, the vast majority with the dry form.

Following the close of the deal, Vedere Bio II will operate as a wholly independent entity from Novartis and Vedere Bio.

Novartis decided to get out of one area of the eye-care business when it spun off Alcon Inc. (NYSE:ALC) last year. The company said it wanted to concentrate on treating diseases of the eye, not eye-care products.

Novartis’ eye drugs include Xidra, treating dry eye disease, and Beovu, which was recently approved for the wet form of AMD. Its third eye drug and the biggest producer is Lucentis, which had sales of $515 million in the third quarter. Xidra and Beovu combined to bring in revenue of about $151 million. Novartis’ biggest competitor is the Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc. (NASDAQ:REGN) drug Eylea, a multibillion-dollar annual seller.

The Novartis faithful are hoping for better days ahead. At about $90, the company’s shares are pretty much where they were five years ago. On the plus side, its dividend yields nearly 4%.

Despite the stock being stuck in neutral, Wall Street seems to think Novartis is a good investment, with three recent buy ratings and just one hold. Analysts give it an average target price of more than $106, according to

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‘I’m an Psychologist and These Are The Light Therapy Treatments I Recommend for Seasonal Affective Disorder’

If you’re finding yourself cursing the reality of darker mornings and even darker, longer nights, you could be dealing with the pangs of seasonal affective disorder (SAD), a very real type of depression that becomes more severe as winter approaches.

a man that is standing in the dark: Chances are you're not the only one experiencing the blues as the mercury drops. Here's how you can push back

© Mint Images – Getty Images
Chances are you’re not the only one experiencing the blues as the mercury drops. Here’s how you can push back

Despite how it may feel, you’re not the only one — it’s thought that around 10-20 per cent of people in the UK experience “mildly debilitating” symptoms of seasonal affective disorder as the weather gets colder and six per cent of adults will experience “recurrent major depressive episodes with seasonal pattern”. Currently, the average age at which seasonal affective disorder symptoms present themselves is 27-years-old in both men and women. Both genders are equally affected.

Despite enjoying an extra hour in bed, most of us will, especially at this time, be spending the majority of daylight hour indoors. For many, this could impact mental health — a 2019 YouGov poll found that 29 per cent of UK adults will experience some kind of depressive symptoms this winter, while six per cent of us will suffer seasonal affective disorder to the point where they’re unable to work or to function properly.

Worried about SAD? Don’t be. We’re here to help with our digestible guide on seasonal affective disorder including expert advice, study commentary, actionable advice, product information and more.

a sunset over a grass field: Cold Dawn Sunrise

© George W Johnson
Cold Dawn Sunrise

What Causes Seasonal Affective Disorder?

A form of depression that’s directly related to the changing of the seasons, seasonal affective disorder is experienced most commonly when summer transitions into winter. As it’s as seasonal issue, seasonal affective disorder is often experienced every 12 months. “Patients often begin experiencing symptoms of depression during autumn and often do not feel an improvement in mood until the spring,” explains Dr. Chun Tang, general Practitioner at Pall Mall Medical.

But how is seasonal affective disorder caused?

The research is sporadic, but one cause, it’s believed, is the correlation between the reduced exposure to sunlight and shorter days in winter. That’s because the hormone melatonin, responsible for controlling our sleep cycles, becomes “phase delayed” by people experiencing seasonal affective disorder, leading us to feel sluggish, tired and irritable — regardless of how many espressos have bene imbibed. Stress levels will rise, too, thereby impacting our mental wellbeing, immunity and overall health.

Similarly, serotonin, a neurotransmitter that regulates anxiety, happiness and mood, could have a bigger impact than previously thought. Due to winter having shorter days and darker weather, there typically isn’t enough natural daylight, which causes a drop in serotonin levels in our brains. On a biological level, this increases the likelihood of someone experiencing a depressive episode.

Seasonal Affective Disorder: What Are The Symptoms?

According to the NHS, symptoms of SAD can include:

  • A persistent low mood
  • A loss of pleasure or interest in normal everyday activities
  • Irritability
  • Feelings of despair, guilt and
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Asia Pacific Laser Therapy Market Forecast to 2027

The Asia Pacific laser therapy market is expected to reach US$ 768. 52 million by 2027 from US$ 348. 67 million in 2019; it is estimated to grow with a CAGR of 10. 5% from 2020 to 2027. The laser therapy market in Asia Pacific grows substantially due to growing medical applications of laser therapy and technological developments in laser therapies.

New York, Oct. 29, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — announces the release of the report “Asia Pacific Laser Therapy Market Forecast to 2027 – COVID-19 Impact and Regional Analysis By Type ; Application ; End User, and Geography” –
However, the high prices of laser therapy and devices hinder the growth of the market.

Laser therapy, a non-invasive medical procedure, uses the light of a specific wavelength to treat various diseases.This procedure is used to remove tumors or abnormal cell growth, perform hair and skin treatments, remove kidney stones, and repair a detached retina.

In medicine, the laser allows surgeons to work at a high level of precision by focusing on a definite area, and this process creates lesser damage than the traditional methods of surgery. The process of laser therapy is however costly and may require repetitive visits to the surgeon.

Various medical device manufacturers and start-ups introduce the latest technologies in the market and the availability of various advanced products allows medical professionals to improve patients’ health by enhancing their treatment efficiency. For instance, in February 2020, IRIDEX Corporation, a manufacturer of ophthalmic laser-based medical products, launched an upgraded second-generation version of MicroPulse P3 device to treat glaucoma, and the upgrades made to the device are expected to substantially reduce intraocular pressure suitable for glaucoma patients without incisions.

Furthermore, in June 2020, Cynosure launched Elite iQ Aesthetic Workstation for laser hair removal and skin revitalization in Australia, allowing faster treatment with higher max energy compared with previous generation devices.Moreover, in February 2019, GakSung introduced the Laser Queen, a low-level laser and LED therapy known as photon light therapy, in India to treat a variety of conditions.

Thus, the consistent technological developments through the launch of new products in the market augment the growth of the laser therapy market in Asia Pacific.

China, Japan, India, Australia, and South Korea are the most affected countries due to the increasing number of COVID-19 cases and the associated deaths.Manufacturers and suppliers of medical devices are shifting their focus from regular laser therapy devices to the development and supply of COVID-19 essentials and medical devices used for respiratory issues.

This scenario adversely impacts the dermatology & cosmetic and minimally invasive therapies performed with laser devices.

Based on type, in 2019, the diode segment held the largest share of the market and is expected to grow at the fastest CAGR during the forecast period.This segment witnesses a lucrative growth owing to its rapid adoption in photodynamic treatments and aesthetic procedures.

Additionally, the diode laser is used for processes such as incision, hemostasis, and coagulation. Moreover, the implementation of diode laser causes minimal

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Chinese medicine regulator to review EdiGene’s therapy for blood disorders

Pakistani patient suffering from thalassemia receives blood at a medical center on the World Thalassemia Day in Islamabad, Pakistan, on May 8, 2018. Thalassemia, also called Mediterranean anemia, is an inherited and non-infectious blood disorder. (Xinhua/Ahmad Kamal)

The China National Medical Products Administration (NMPA) will review biotech company EdiGene’s investigational new drug (IND) application for ET-01, an investigational gene-editing therapy for patients with transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia (an inherited blood disorder), according to the company’s website.

The trial of ET-01 is expected to assess its safety and efficacy in transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia patients. In China, it is estimated that there are 30 million thalassemia gene carriers, and over 300,000 patients with thalassemia major or thalassemia intermediate. Serious unmet medical needs remain for transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia patients today.

“We are happy to achieve this important milestone and bring ET-01 closer to clinical-use stage,” said Dong Wei, CEO of EdiGene. “We are committed to translating cutting-edge gene-editing technologies into transformative therapies so as to bring patients better choices, and for some, a potential one-time cure. We look forward to receiving approval from NMPA and initiating ET-01 clinical studies in the near future,” he added.

ET-01 is an investigational gene-edited hematopoietic stem cell therapy for transfusion dependent beta-thalassemia patients. 

EdiGene is a biotech company developing genome editing technologies to accelerate drug discovery and develop novel therapeutics for a wide range of illnesses.

Global Times

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Bayer to acquire Asklepios Bio in foray into gene therapy worth up to $4 billion

FRANKFURT (Reuters) – Bayer BAYGn.DE agreed to acquire unlisted U.S. biotech firm Asklepios BioPharmaceutical Inc for as much as $4 billion in a bet on gene therapy with the help of modified viruses.

FILE PHOTO: A bridge is decorated with the logo of a Bayer AG, a German pharmaceutical and chemical maker in Wuppertal, Germany August 9, 2019. REUTERS/Wolfgang Rattay/File Photo

Germany’s Bayer will pay $2 billion upfront and up to an additional $2 billion in milestone payments contingent on development achievements, it said on Monday.

The North Carolina-based takeover target, also known as AskBio, is trying to use the harmless adeno-associated virus as a delivery device to bring genetic repair kits against a range of diseases into the body.Drugs and farming pesticides maker Bayer needs to upgrade its drug development pipeline amid a weaker outlook for agricultural sales and as it seeks to finalise an $11 billion settlement over claims its Roundup weedkiller causes cancer.

Among AskBio’s most advanced projects are early tests on volunteers of prospective treatments against Pompe disease – a rare genetic disease causing buildup of a sugar molecule inside cells – as well as against Parkinson’s disease and congestive heart failure.

Bayer said the deal complements the 2019 acquisition of BlueRock Therapeutics, a developer of stem cell therapies, and underscores Bayer’s intention to create a cell and gene therapy business.

AskBio, which was founded in 2001, and BlueRock will exchange information and collaborate but will each operate as independent entities, prompting a pledge from AskBio’s five main owners, who are co-founders or key scientists, to remain with the firm.

“We are staying on board because of the unique structure that Bayer has provided … We’ll have the ability to make our science decisions,” said Chief Executive Officer and co-founder Sheila Mikhail.

Investors TPG Capital and Vida Ventures are selling a minority stake in the company.

AskBio is also helping other companies with their gene therapy research and production and has licensed experimental drugs to external partners, which has financed much of its own drug development activities. Bayer or AskBio would not provide figures for such fee revenues.

A potential treatment of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, invented by AskBio is currently being developed in clinical trials by Pfizer PFE.N and this month won fast track here status from U.S. regulators.

Bayer in 2018 moved to lean more strongly on external firms to improve drug development, which analysts say needs a boost to make up for an expected decline in revenues from its two pharma bestsellers from about 2024.

Credit Suisse was financial advisor while Baker McKenzie was legal counsel to Bayer. JP Morgan was financial advisor to AskBio, while Ropes & Gray was legal counsel.

Reporting by Ludwig Burger; Editing by Frances Kerry

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Covid Plasma therapy controversy and the first Nobel prize in medicine!

The latest controversy in COVID 19 regarding the usefulness of plasma therapy after ICMR – WHO disowned it and the government of Delhi insisted on its use, has brought the issue back into focus.

It is a little known fact that the knowledge that antibodies present in the plasma of an infected patient can be used as a useful drug to combat and cure the disease, had brought the very first Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in the year 1901.

This Nobel Prize went to Emil Von Behring who is regarded as the founder of Plasma Therapy.

Behring belonged to an era when modern scientific understanding of microbiology and immunology was nascent. He worked with all-time greats such as Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch, P. Ehrlich, Loeffler; the who’s who amongst the founding fathers of modern medical science in late nineteenth century. They together produced several research papers in the diverse field of Bacterial immunology. Behring specially worked towards curing the curse of Diphtheria, Tetanus and also controlling the menace of Tuberculosis in the later part of his life. These problems together were responsible for milllions of helpless deaths in those days.

Behring was born on 15th March 1854 in Hansdorf (West Prussia), now Poland, in a large family of 13 siblings. His father was a school teacher who had difficulty in supporting his family with meagre income. After studying medicine with full scholarship in military medical school Behring joined the armed forces so that he could start supporting his family. He spent most part of his active life in Germany and France where later on he would get the

chance to work at the famous ‘Pasteur Institute ‘and subsequently at Marburg where he became professor of infectious diseases.

In the year 1898 – 99, he demonstrated that Diphtheria culture, when separated from bacilli completely, still contained pure toxins and that these toxins were lethal. Such toxins, when injected into animals (initially guinea pigs and later on horses) produced copious antitoxins. When plasma containing such antitoxins was transfused into diseased animals, and later on in human beings, it controlled and cured the certain fatal disease.

This instantly brought Behring huge fame and recognition and consequently the very inaugural Nobel Prize was awarded to him in the year 1901 by Nobel foundation.

Later on, with F. Wernicke, he established that lasting immunity to diphtheria could be produced for prophylaxis by injecting the toxin-anti-toxin  mixture producing antibodies which could neutralise the lethal bacterial toxins and antigens, eventually leading to final banishment of diphtheria from the scourges of mankind.

I don’t think the last word on the usefulness of plasma therapy has been pronounced as yet. The fact that monoclonal antibodies based on the same basic principle, made of specific clones against COVID antigens recently produced by REGENERON and used for American President Trump’s successful treatment vindicates its basic premise!

The Author is Currently Professor of medicine at Manipal Tata Medical College and Formerly Professor and Head, Department of Medicine at Rajendra Institute

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Study: HIV-positive adults show early signs of aging, even after antiretroviral therapy

Oct. 22 (UPI) — People with HIV may experience aging-related illnesses, such as heart disease and brain disorders, earlier than those without the virus, even if they have been on antiretroviral therapy, a study published Thursday by the journal Pathogens and Immunity found.

The analysis, which compared 15 HIV-positive adults on antiretroviral therapy to 15 age-matched people without the virus, found that those being treated with the drugs showed increased evidence of cellular aging, the researchers said.

Antiretroviral therapies, or ART, are intended to slow the progression of HIV and reduce the level of the virus in the body.

While ART has led to people with HIV living longer, they are still at higher risk for having a “reduced healthspan” — or developing age-related health complications — than those without the virus, according to the researchers.

“Most individuals living with HIV probably already know that they are facing more health challenges than their uninfected peers, so the main takeaway from this study is that we’re now beginning to better understand why that is,” study co-author Beth D. Jamieson told UPI.

“It’s clear that the antiretroviral therapies aren’t causing this aging acceleration. It appears to be the virus and … the antiretroviral therapies appear to help reverse some of this aging, but the changes are less robust and much slower than we’d like to see,” said Jamieson, a professor of medicine in the division of hematology and oncology at UCLA’s David Geffen School of Medicine.

About 1.4 million adults in the United States have HIV, and nearly 40,000 are diagnosed with the virus each year, according to the Department of Health and Human Services.

Research suggests that ART drugs bolster the immune systems of those with the disease, allowing them to better fight off infections and, effectively, enabling them to live close-to-normal lifespans.

However, treated HIV-infected adults still experience earlier declines in physical functions, as well as higher rates of heart disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, kidney failure, liver cancer and neurological disorders than otherwise healthy adults, Jamieson and her colleagues said.

For their research, the UCLA-based team assessed 30 study participants — 15 receiving ART for HIV and 15 healthy controls — for signs of cellular aging. DNA samples collected from all study subjects were analyzed using the epigenetic clock, a biochemical test used to measure aging.

In the HIV-positive participants, DNA samples were collected at three points — six months to one year before starting ART, six to 12 months after beginning treatment and 18 to 24 months later.

Before starting ART, the DNA participants with HIV all had significantly higher levels of four measures for cellular aging — age acceleration residual, extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration, phenotypic epigenetic age acceleration and Grim epigenetic age acceleration — than the uninfected adults, the researchers said.

That remained true six to 12 months after the HIV-positive participants started ART. However, 18 to 24 months after starting therapy, only levels of residual and extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration remained higher in those with HIV, the analysis

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HIV Drugs Prevent Type 2 Diabetes, May Be Path to New Therapy

A class of drugs long used to treat HIV and hepatitis B viral infections appears to prevent the development of diabetes in a substantial proportion of patients who take these agents, an analysis of multiple databases has shown.

“Nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), drugs approved to treat HIV-1 and hepatitis B infections, also block inflammasome activation,” Jayakrishna Ambati, MD, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia, and colleagues write in their article, published recently in Nature Communications.

“[We showed that] the adjusted risk of incident diabetes is 33% lower in patients with NRTI exposure…. These data suggest the possibility of repurposing an approved class of drugs for prevention of diabetes,” they say.

The researchers made a small chemical modification to NRTIs that led to their developing a new class of drugs, which they have termed “kamuvudines.” Kamuvudines are nontoxic derivatives of NRTIs, Ambati told Medscape Medical News.

“People take NRTIs because they need to live with HIV, but giving them to the general population is not a great idea because of the toxicities associated with long-term NRTI use.

“So our focus is not to go forward specifically with NRTIs but rather with these new molecules that are far less toxic, and that is how we envision a clinical trial going forward,” Ambati noted.

Researchers Screened Five Databases of >100,000 Patients

Ambati and colleagues analyzed information from five databases in which patients who had been exposed to an NRTI but who had not previously been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were assessed for the subsequent development of diabetes over varying time intervals. In one, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) database ― from the largest integrated healthcare system in the United States ― the analysis spanned a period of 17 years.

Of 79,744 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of HIV or hepatitis B in the VHA database, the risk for type 2 diabetes was reduced by 34% among NRTI users compared with nonusers after adjusting for potential confounders (P < .0001).

The reduction in diabetes risk was similar among HIV-positive and hepatitis B–positive patients.

These results were reaffirmed by further analyses of four other databases, the investigators report. One of these, the employer-based health insurance Truven database, had data on 23,634 patients who had been diagnosed with HIV or hepatitis B. After adjusting for potential confounders, NRTI users had a 39% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared to nonusers (P < .0001).

The risk of developing type 2 diabetes was somewhat lower among NRTI users in the Pearl Diver database, which includes predominantly private health insurance claims. Of 16,045 patients diagnosed with HIV or hepatitis B included in this database, the risk for type 2 diabetes was 26% lower among NRTI users compared to nonusers (P = .004).

A similar magnitude of risk reduction was seen in the analysis of the Clinformatics dataset. Among 6341 users of NRTIs, the risk for type 2 diabetes was 27% lower than it was for nonusers (P = .009).

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