Earthshaking Signature ‘Brawn Songs’ and Movement, Developed over Time, Identify Seals

In the ferocious arena of a northern elephant seal colony, where few males ever get to mate, jostling suitors often face bloody battles over access to groups of females. And these boisterous bulls have a dramatic way of making their presence known to rivals: individuals identify themselves via rhythmic, guttural calls, accompanied by body slams that literally shake the ground around them.

Now research indicates that the seals are not born with these identifying signals. Rather they develop their unique brands of vocal bravado as they age, according to a recent paper published in Animal Behaviour.

The researchers recorded more than 440 calls from 47 male elephant seals at various stages of development in California’s Año Nuevo State Park. In this colony of 2,000 animals, a dominant male may vie with 50 top competitors—each of whom possesses his own call. These vocalizations develop around the same time as the seals carve out jealously guarded territories of about 20 square meters.

Less established younger males, in contrast, are “acoustically inconspicuous” and produce short, unstructured calls. They seem to avoid standing out, which may help them gain time to mature, says lead author Caroline Casey, a graduate student in ecology and evolutionary biology at the University of California, Santa Cruz. At around the age of eight or nine, the seals finally settle on a personal song.

“It’s really when they have a shot at reproducing and becoming socially competitive that these signature calls start to emerge,” Casey says.

The resulting recognition comes in handy, as male seals appear to listen for—and avoid—individuals who have previously bested them in fights. Instead they target their competitive energies toward bulls with whom they know they are more evenly matched.

Casey suspects that the ruthless nature of male elephant seal society is what prompts the development of individualistic vocalizations. To explore that difficult-to-prove connection, she says, she would like to also analyze seal calls from less tightly packed communities, which could be less competitive.

Luke Rendell, a biologist in the Sea Mammal Research Unit at the University of St Andrews in Scotland, who was not involved in the study, agrees that this motivation is a possibility. Rival seals’ ability to acoustically differentiate themselves from one another may even be something they learn from their elders around the point of reaching sexual maturity, he suggests.

“My hunch is that there is some learning involved,” Rendell says. He praises the study for including enough data from seals in different age groups to clearly show the transition from indistinct to distinct calls: “I thought it was a really significant contribution.”

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Global IV Infusion Bottle Seals & Caps Market to Surpass US$ 124.9 Million by 2027, Says Coherent Market Insights (CMI)

According to Coherent Market Insights, the global IV infusion bottle seals & caps market is estimated to be valued at US$ 104.3 million in 2020 and is expected to exhibit a CAGR of 2.6% over the forecast period (2020-2027).

Key Trends and Analysis of the Global IV infusion bottle seals & caps Market:

Key trends in the market include rising incidence of multiple sclerosis, arthritis, congestive heart failure, increasing launches of IV products, launch of new programs, and adoption of expansion strategies by the companies.

Rising incidence of chronic diseases such as multiple sclerosis, arthritis, congestive heart failure, and some types of immune deficiency disorders is expected to drive demand for infusion therapies, thereby contributing to significant growth of the IV infusion bottle seals & caps market. For instance, according to the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), 2020, in the year 2017, globally, around 126 million people suffered from ischemic heart disease (1,655 per 100,000). Furthermore, according to the World Federation of Hemophilia (WFH) 2018 statistics, around 440,000 people suffered from hemophilia, of which around 173,000 people were diagnosed with hemophilia A or B in 2017, globally.

Moreover, rising launches of IV products, in order to address the healthcare needs is the major factor, which is expected to drive the market growth over the forecast period. For instance, in June 2029, Eurolife Healthcare, a manufacturer and distributor specialty Infusion & pharmaceuticals, launched Discport and Lifeport IV products in India. These products are the replacement to the currently used polypropylene bottles (FFS bottles).

Moreover, market players are involved in launching new programs for patient safety, in order to increase the use of IV therapy and this is expected to drive the market growth. For instance, in April 2019, Becton, Dickson and Company (BD) launched a new program for patient safety in hospitals, called as PRIME (Preventing Risks of Infections and Medication Errors in IV Therapy). PRIME was developed in partnership with the Joint Commission International (JCI) for patient safety and aimed to address the challenges in a hospital setting regarding medical safety and infection prevention.

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Key Market Takeaways:

The global IV infusion bottle seals & caps market is expected to exhibit a CAGR of 2.6% over the forecast period, owing to facility expansion of pharmaceutical plastic packaging, which is expected to drive the market growth. For instance, in May 2018, Gerresheimer, a manufacturer of specialist packaging for drugs, announced the expansion of its facility in the Brazil. The new Gerresheimer Anápolis plant has commenced production in the Brazilian state of Goiás, for the production of the entire range of plastic containers from PP, PE, and PET, along with the corresponding closures and caps.

Competitive Landscape:

Key players operating in the global IV infusion bottle seals & caps market include Cardinal Health Inc., Jiangsu changjiang Lids, Taiwan Hon Chuan Enterprise, PrasadMeditech, Winfield Laboratories Inc., Datwyler HoldingAG, Wuxi Qitian Medical Technology Co., Ltd, Medline Industries Inc., RENOLITSE, and B. Braun Medical Inc.

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