As rich countries hoard potential coronavirus vaccine doses, rest of world could go without

As a result, relatively wealthy nations will likely be able to vaccinate their entire populations, with billions of others relegated to the back of the line. People in low-income countries could be waiting until 2024.

These deals between countries and drug manufacturers, known as advance purchase agreements, are undermining a World Health Organization-linked initiative to equitably distribute vaccines, the study suggests.

“Where we are headed is a situation where high-income countries have enough, and low-income countries just don’t,” said Andrea Taylor, the lead researcher.

Since the vaccine race got underway, experts have warned of the dangers of “vaccine nationalism” and calling for a cooperative approach to vaccine development and distribution.

More than 150 countries, representing a large share of the world’s population, have signed on to participate in the Covid-19 Vaccines Global Access Facility, or Covax, which aims to develop and equitably distribute $2 billion in doses of a vaccine by the end of next year.

Under the plan, both rich and poor countries pool money to offer manufacturers volume guarantees for potential vaccines. The idea is to discourage hoarding and focus on vaccinating high-risk people in every participating country first.

Many wealthy players, including the European Union, Canada and Japan, joined the initiative. But most are backing Covax while also cutting deals directly with manufacturers.

The researchers found that Canada and the United Kingdom have already reserved more than enough potential vaccines to cover their entire populations. The E.U. has also secured hundreds of millions of doses.

These deals make sense from a country perspective, but they undermine cooperative efforts to secure enough doses, particularly for low-income countries, experts said.

“The more that countries hedge their bets and work outside of Covax, the harder it is for Covax to actually deliver on its promises,” said Suerie Moon, co-director of the Global Health Center at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva.

Rich countries, she said, “are eating up all the supply before Covax can take a nibble.”

The United States did not join Covax, in part because the Trump administration did not want to work with the WHO. The Duke analysis found that the U.S. already has agreements to buy enough doses to cover 139 percent of its population — and could eventually control 1.8 billion doses, or roughly a quarter of the world’s “near-term” supply.

Middle-income countries are also reserving doses. Brazil and India already have secured the rights to enough vaccines to cover about half of their populations, the study noted.

Most low-income countries, by contrast, have little choice but to rely on Covax, which must compete with big players to secure access to vaccines.

Taylor, the lead researcher, stressed that the study offers a “snapshot” of where things stand, not a definitive prediction. Access to vaccines depends in large part on which vaccines prove safe and effective — and that is still very much up in the air.

Another critical question is capacity: How many coronavirus vaccines can the world make in a

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What Qualities Set a Good Pediatric Dentist Apart From the Rest?

No pediatric dentist worth their salt will paint a weak picture of themselves. If you listen to them advertise their services, you will be at a loss when it comes to choice. Everybody looks great on paper or the digital display and they sound awesome in the media outlets.

You may need to have personal experience with a few to see who stands up to the image they have created of themselves. Some pediatric dentists may have opted for pediatric dentistry because they saw a niche. Others have genuine love and regard for children and want to make their dental experience as trauma-free as possible.

In your search for the perfect dentist for your child or children, make sure they have the following qualities:

He / she should have the child's wellbeing at heart

Everything from attitude to the environment in the office should be geared towards creating an ambiance that favors children. It is not just about toys and Sponge Bob playing on TV. Children should find comfort and something to keep them occupied and entertained in the dentist's office. The staff should be able to interact with the little ones at their level so that they feel at ease.

The décor of the exam room, the smells and sounds should make the child feel comfortable rather having that clinic atmosphere that only makes a child feel the tension.

The supplies should be kiddie-sized

You cannot use the same gadgets that are used on adults for children. They are little and therefore have little mouths. Imagine trying to use equipment meant for adults on a child. Not only will she resist it, for obvious reasons, but she will also be traumatized by the whole process. A pediatric dentist must have the child's comfort at heart even when purchasing supplies and equipment for their office and exam room.

Converse with the child at their level

No, you do not need to sound like Minnie Mouse. Of course, your tone and pitch should be appropriate, but it is more like using words that the child understands. So, even as you work on your delivery, dental lingua is only going to earn you blank confused looks.

Also, remember all those gadgets don't exactly look like the utensils they use to eat pies. It is bound to look a tad intimidating. It would help if you would gently explain what any gadget you have to use it for and how it is going to help the child.

No two children are the same, so a good dentist first gets a feel of each little patient before they talk to them by having a chat with the parents of new patients to know whether or not kiddie talk will work or the child will not buy it .

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