Watch Out Fitbit, The Wyze Watch Fitness Tracker Only Costs $20

Smart home tech company Wyze has announced a feature-rich fitness tracker that costs just $20.

The Wyze Watch is available for pre-order today, and will ship from February 2021.

A $20 price encourages low expectations, but the Wyze Watch has an almost baffling amount of tech and hardware considering the cost. It has a 1.75-inch LCD screen — more like that of a smartwatch than a budget fitness tracker — an aluminium frame rather than a plastic one and a blood oxygen saturation sensor.

Wyze’s Watch comes in two sizes, 44mm and 47mm, and the smaller version has a 1.4-inch screen. Wyze claims the watch lasts up to nine days between charges, and its optical HR sensor will keep an eye on your heart rate 24/7.

This is a little less of a departure for Wyze than it may initially appear, as the Watch can be used to control the company’s existing smart home gear over Bluetooth. Wyze makes home security cameras and a thermostat, and it released a basic fitness tracker earlier this year, the $25 Wyze Band.

Still, a Wyze Watch will count your steps like a normal fitness tracker, and the data can be sync’d with either Google Fit or Apple Health. It can also receive notifications from apps including Gmail, WhatsApp and Instagram.

What are the drawbacks? The Wyze Watch is only water resistant to 2 meters, or IP68, not the 5ATM some rivals offer.

And as the screen uses an LCD panel rather than an OLED one, there’s unlikely to be an “always on” watch display option.

The Wyze Watch also lacks GPS and there’s no mention of full activity tracking, where you might, for example, manually start tracking a run rather than letting the watch passively count your steps. It won’t replace a Garmin, but to expect that for $20 is unrealistic.

At the time of writing the Wyze site suggests it has sold over 38,000 Watches. And as the $20 offer is listed as a “pre-order” price, you can expect the cost to rise when the pre-order allocation has run out. A leather strap accessory is available for $10.

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Trump rule says health plans must disclose costs up front

WASHINGTON (AP) — Trying to pull back the veil on health care costs to encourage competition, the Trump administration on Thursday finalized a requirement for insurers to tell consumers up front the actual prices for common tests and procedures.

A major health insurance industry group said the regulation would have the opposite effect, raising premiums.

The late-innings policy play ahead of Election Day comes as President Donald Trump has been hammered on health care by Democratic challenger Joe Biden for the administration’s handling of the coronavirus pandemic and its unrelenting efforts to overturn “Obamacare,” the 2010 law providing coverage to more than 20 million people.

A related Trump administration price disclosure requirement applying to hospitals is facing a federal lawsuit from the industry, alleging coercion and interference with business practices.

The idea behind the new regulations on insurers is to empower patients to become better consumers of health care, thereby helping to drive down costs.


But the requirements would take effect gradually over a four-year period, and patients face a considerable learning curve to make cost-versus-quality decisions about procedures like knee replacements or hernia repairs. Add to that political uncertainty about the policy’s survival if Trump doesn’t get reelected, and the whole effort is running into skepticism.

Administration officials are adamant the changes will stand, arguing the goal of price transparency transcends political partisanship.

“It will be impossible to walk backwards on this,” Health and Human Services Secretary Alex Azar said. “How do you fight transparency on prices? How do you actually articulate the argument that you should conceal what something costs from the person trying to purchase it?”

Insurance companies contend that the rules will boomerang economically, by undercutting their ability to bargain with hospitals, drug companies, doctors and other industry players. Providers now accepting discounted rates will press to get paid more once they see what their upper-end competitors are getting.

“The final rule will work to reduce competition and push health care prices higher — not lower — for American families, patients, and taxpayers,” Matt Eyles, president of America’s Health Insurance Plans, said in a statement. “This is precisely the opposite of what Americans want in their health care.”

The new rules are being issued jointly by HHS, the Labor Department and the Treasury, which share jurisdiction over health insurance plans. They would:

— Starting in 2022, require insurers to make available data files on the costs of various procedures, allowing technology companies to design apps that let patients see costs not only under their own plan but other insurers’ plans as well.

— Starting in 2023, require insurers to make available to their policyholders cost-sharing details on 500 specific services, medical equipment and other items, as called for by the government.

— Starting in 2024, require insurers to make cost-sharing information available on all the services and goods they cover.

Patients would use an online shopping tool from their plan to see the negotiated rate between their doctor and the insurer, as well as an out-of-pocket

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Does Medicare cover leukemia care? Treatment, costs and options

There are benefits included in Medicare plans that can help with treatment costs relating to leukemia. Out-of-pocket expenses may apply, but there may be additional support available.

Medicare covers many of the costs of care relating to leukemia. As with other cancer, doctors customize treatment options for people based on their medical history and type of cancer.

In this article, we discuss the different treatments for leukemia, what Medicare covers, and other options that may be available.

We may use a few terms in this piece that can be helpful to understand when selecting the best insurance plan:

  • Deductible: This is an annual amount that a person must spend out of pocket within a certain time period before an insurer starts to fund their treatments.
  • Coinsurance: This is a percentage of a treatment cost that a person will need to self-fund. For Medicare Part B, this comes to 20%.
  • Copayment: This is a fixed dollar amount that an insured person pays when receiving certain treatments. For Medicare, this usually applies to prescription drugs.

Original Medicare has two parts that each provide coverage for care received in different settings.

Medicare Part A

Medicare Part A is sometimes called hospital insurance and covers inpatient hospital stays, including cancer treatment a person receives while in the hospital.

Part A also pays for skilled nursing facilities, hospice, and home healthcare. Home healthcare can include:

  • physical therapy
  • speech and language therapy
  • occupational therapy
  • skilled nursing care

A person enrolled in an eligible clinical research study may also have some costs covered by Part A.

Medicare Part B

Medicare Part B is sometimes called medical insurance. This part of Medicare pays for medically necessary, cancer-related treatments and services a person may need outside the hospital.

This can include:

  • doctor visits
  • chemotherapy drugs administered intravenously in an outpatient clinic or doctor’s office
  • some oral chemotherapy
  • durable medical equipment (DME) like wheelchairs or walkers
  • mental health services
  • nutritional counseling
  • radiation treatment

In some instances, Medicare Part B will cover the cost of a second opinion for surgery. This happens if the surgery is not an emergency. They may cover a third opinion if the first and second opinions differ.

Medicare Part D

Medicare Part D, also known as a prescription drug plan (PDP), covers outpatient prescription drugs. Private insurance companies administer these plans.

Some chemotherapy drugs that are not covered by Part B, may be covered under a PDP, as well as prescribed pain relief and anti-emetics.

Surgical options

Surgery plays a limited role in treating leukemia since blood carries the disease throughout the body.

An individual may get a central venous catheter, which is a flexible tube that is inserted into a large vein, making it easier to administer chemotherapy. This is an inpatient surgical procedure that is covered by Part A.

A person may also have a biopsy of the lymph nodes or bone marrow that can help diagnose leukemia. The biopsy is an outpatient procedure and is covered by Part B.

The body has several

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Pacific Source: Medicare Advantage plans: Locations, plans, and costs

PacificSource Medicare was founded in Oregon in 1933 as a not-for-profit company, offers Medicare Advantage plans, and has more than 300,000 members throughout the Northwest.

According to the Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF), Medicare-approved insurance companies, such as PacificSource, provided Advantage plans to more than 24 million US citizens in 2020.

This article looks at the PacificSource Advantage plans and availability. It also looks at the coverage, benefits, and costs.

We may use a few terms in this piece that can be helpful to understand when selecting the best insurance plan:

  • Deductible: This is an annual amount that a person must spend out of pocket within a certain time period before an insurer starts to fund their treatments.
  • Coinsurance: This is a percentage of a treatment cost that a person will need to self-fund. For Medicare Part B, this comes to 20%.
  • Copayment: This is a fixed dollar amount that an insured person pays when receiving certain treatments. For Medicare, this usually applies to prescription drugs.

PacificSource offers several Medicare Advantage plans, including Health Maintenance Organization (HMO), Health Maintenance Organization Point of Service (HMO-POS), and Preferred Provider Organization (PPO).

HMO plans

PacificSource HMO plans include Medicare Essentials 2 without Part D prescription drug coverage and MyCare Rx 40 including Part D.

When a person enrolls in an HMO plan, they agree to use the plan’s network of healthcare providers. They also choose a primary care doctor from within the network, who then coordinates health services and referrals to specialists.

If a person wants to use a healthcare provider from outside the network, they may have more costs, except in a medical emergency.

Medicare Essentials 2 (HMO) plan

This plan is available in certain counties in Oregon. In 2021, the monthly premium and the annual deductible are both zero, while the out-of-pocket maximum expense is $5,500. A person must use in-network providers.

My Care Rx 40 (HMO) plan

This plan is available in certain counties in Oregon.
The monthly premium in 2021 is zero. Out-of-pocket expenses in 2021 have an annual maximum of $4,950, and a person must use in-network providers.

HMO-POS plans

PacificSource HMO-POS plans include Medicare Essentials Choice Rx 14, and MyCare Choice Rx 24, both of which include prescription drugs (Part D) coverage.

With HMO-POS plans, people have the freedom to use healthcare services outside of their plan’s network. However, they must pay a higher copay or coinsurance to do so.

Medicare Essentials Choice Rx 14 plan (HMO-POS) plan

This plan is available in certain counties in Oregon.
In 2021, the monthly premium is $99.00 and the in-network out-of-pocket maximum is $5,500.

2021 MyCare Choice Rx 24 (HMO-POS) plan

This plan is available in certain counties in Idaho.
The monthly premium in 2021 is $35. Out-of-pocket expenses have an annual maximum of $5,500 in 2021 for in-network providers and no maximum for out-of-network services.

PPO plans

PacificSource PPO plans include Explorer 12 without the prescription drug (Part D) cover and Explorer Rx4, including Part D prescription drug coverage.

These

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Trump Rule Requires Health Plans to Disclose Costs up Front | Business News

By RICARDO ALONSO-ZALDIVAR, Associated Press

WASHINGTON (AP) — Trying to pull back the veil on health care costs to encourage competition, the Trump administration on Thursday finalized a requirement for insurers to tell consumers up front the actual prices for common tests and procedures.

The late-innings policy play comes just days ahead of Election Day as President Donald Trump has been hammered on health care by Democratic challenger Joe Biden for the administration’s handling of the coronavirus pandemic and its unrelenting efforts to overturn “Obamacare,” the 2010 law providing coverage to more than 20 million people.

A related Trump administration price disclosure requirement applying to hospitals is facing a federal lawsuit from the industry, alleging coercion and interference with business practices.

The idea behind the new regulations on insurers is to empower patients to become better consumers of health care, thereby helping to drive down costs.

But the requirements would take effect gradually over a four-year period, and patients face a considerable learning curve to make cost-versus-quality decisions about procedures like knee replacements or hernia repairs. Add to that political uncertainty about the policy’s survival if Trump doesn’t get reelected, and the whole effort is running into skepticism.

Administration officials are adamant the changes will stand, arguing the goal of price transparency transcends political partisanship.

“It will be impossible to walk backwards on this,” Health and Human Services Secretary Alex Azar said. “How do you fight transparency on prices? How do you actually articulate the argument that you should conceal what something costs from the person trying to purchase it?”

Insurance companies contend that the rules will boomerang economically, driving up costs. Hospitals and doctors now accepting discounted rates will press to get paid more once they see what their upper-end competitors are getting.

The new rules are being issued jointly by HHS, the Labor Department and the Treasury, which share jurisdiction over health insurance plans. They would:

— Starting in 2022, require insurers to make available data files on the costs of various procedures, allowing technology companies to design apps that let patients see costs not only under their own plan but other insurers’ plans as well.

— Starting in 2023, require insurers to make available to their policyholders cost-sharing details on 500 specific services, medical equipment and other items, as called for by the government.

— Starting in 2024, require insurers to make cost-sharing information available on all the services and goods they cover.

Patients would use an online shopping tool from their plan to see the negotiated rate between their doctor and the insurer, as well as an out-of-pocket cost estimate for procedures, drugs, durable medical equipment and any other item or service they may need.

The information would be available ahead of time, enabling an informed decision. Currently, most patients find out what they owe after they get back from the hospital and receive their “explanation of benefits” statement.

“We need to keep pricing on the front end, not the back end,” said Seema Verma, head

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Medicare and CPAP machines: Coverage, treatments, and costs

Medicare covers some durable medical equipment (DME), including a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machine, when a doctor prescribes it for home use. Medicare Advantage plans may also cover CPAP therapy.

Medicare typically covers CPAP therapy for people who have a condition called obstructive sleep apnea.

This article discusses the types of sleep apnea and some of the treatments for the condition. It also looks at Medicare coverage.

We may use a few terms in this piece that can be helpful to understand when selecting the best insurance plan:

  • Deductible: This is an annual amount that a person must spend out of pocket within a certain time period before an insurer starts to fund their treatments.
  • Coinsurance: This is a percentage of a treatment cost that a person will need to self-fund. For Medicare Part B, this comes to 20%.
  • Copayment: This is a fixed dollar amount that an insured person pays when receiving certain treatments. For Medicare, this usually applies to prescription drugs.

Sleep apnea is a condition in which a person temporarily stops breathing while asleep. The pauses in breathing are usually at least 10 seconds long and may last for more than a minute, according to the American Sleep Apnea Association (ASAA). These pauses may occur hundreds of times a night.

Types of sleep apnea

The three main types of sleep apnea are:

  • Obstructive sleep apnea: This condition happens when a person’s airway becomes blocked during sleep. It can occur if the soft tissue at the back of the throat collapses and creates a blockage.
  • Central sleep apnea: This condition happens when a person’s brain does not send the appropriate signal to the muscles that play a role in breathing.
  • Mixed sleep apnea: This condition is a combination of obstructive and central sleep apnea.

Obstructive sleep apnea is the most common type of sleep apnea.

Causes of sleep apnea

According to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), the causes of obstructive sleep apnea include:

  • obesity
  • large tonsils
  • heart or kidney failure, which may cause fluid buildup in the neck
  • genetic syndromes that affect facial structure

A person with sleep apnea may not know that they have the condition. They might only become aware of it because a partner or family member notices that the person’s breathing is irregular while sleeping.

Sleep apnea typically prevents a person from having deep, restful sleep.

Symptoms of sleep apnea

According to the NHLBI, the signs and symptoms of sleep apnea may include:

  • excessive daytime sleepiness
  • loud snoring
  • gasping for air while asleep
  • morning headaches
  • trouble concentrating

Sleep apnea may also increase a person’s risk for certain conditions, including:

Read more about sleep apnea here.

The most common treatment for someone with moderate-to-severe sleep apnea is a breathing device, such as a CPAP machine. CPAP therapy delivers a flow of air through a mask to help keep the airway open while a person is asleep.

Other potential treatments for sleep apnea include:

  • Oral appliance therapy: A person wears a custom-fitted
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Activists urge ‘Big Pharma’ to be transparent on COVID-19 vaccine costs

By Stephanie Nebehay



FILE PHOTO: A woman holds a small bottle labeled with a "Vaccine COVID-19" sticker and a medical syringe in this illustration


© Reuters/Dado Ruvic
FILE PHOTO: A woman holds a small bottle labeled with a “Vaccine COVID-19” sticker and a medical syringe in this illustration

GENEVA (Reuters) – Activists called on pharmaceutical companies on Thursday to be transparent about the costs and terms of providing COVID-19 vaccines, saying they must be available and affordable for all.

French drugmaker Sanofi and Britain’s GlaxoSmithKline said on Wednesday they would supply 200 million doses of their COVID-19 candidate vaccine to the global COVAX vaccine facility backed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the GAVI vaccine alliance.

Medecins Sans Frontieres (Doctors Without Borders) demanded the two companies provide details around price, supply and distribution of any vaccine proven safe and effective.

“Pharmaceutical corporations Sanofi and GSK must sell their vaccines at-cost and open their books to show the public exactly how much it costs to make the vaccine,” said Kate Elder, senior vaccines policy adviser at MSF’s Access Campaign.

“There is no room for secrets during a pandemic and past experience tells us that we can’t take pharma at their word without data to back up their claims,” she said in a statement.

Sanofi and GSK could not immediately be reached for comment.

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No company has shared information on research and development, clinical trials or manufacturing costs of potential COVID-19 vaccines, MSF said, adding this was vital for the public to assess prices set.

More than half of the expected volume of doses of leading candidate vaccines has been bought up by 13% of the world, mainly high-income countries, the medical charity said.

Human Rights Watch, in a separate report, said governments funding vaccines with public money should be transparent about terms and conditions attached.

The New York-based group urged states to back a proposal by India and South Africa to wave some aspects of intellectual property (IP) rules on patents to enable large-scale manufacturing and affordability.

A temporary IP waiver was debated this month in the World Trade Organization (WTO), but was opposed by the United States, European Union, Britain, Switzerland and others.

“Since the beginning of the pandemic our priority has been to ensure that all people enjoy the fruits of science … In these difficult times the best health technologies and discoveries cannot be reserved only for a few, they must be available to all,” WHO director-general Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus said at a UNESCO event on “Open Science” on Tuesday.

“Sharing data and information that is often kept secret or protected by intellectual property could significantly advance the speed at which technologies are developed,” Tedros added.

(Reporting by Stephanie Nebehay; Editing by Mark Potter)

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Coverage, tests, alternatives, and costs

Original Medicare, and some Medicare Advantage plans, cover hernia surgery when it is medically necessary. Similar to other types of surgery, different parts of Medicare may cover certain aspects of care.

The care related to hernia surgery may vary depending on the procedure, the surgical setting, and any complications that develop.

This article describes hernias and hernia surgery, and looks at Medicare coverage, costs, and possible financial assistance.

We may use a few terms in this piece that can be helpful to understand when selecting the best insurance plan:

  • Deductible: This is an annual amount that a person must spend out of pocket within a certain time period before an insurer starts to fund their treatments.
  • Coinsurance: This is a percentage of a treatment cost that a person will need to self-fund. For Medicare Part B, this comes to 20%.
  • Copayment: This is a fixed dollar amount that an insured person pays when receiving certain treatments. For Medicare, this usually applies to prescription drugs.

A hernia involves a weakness in the muscular tissue that holds an organ in place. The weakness causes the organ to bulge, which creates a lump under the skin. In many cases, a hernia involves the abdominal wall.

Causes

Activities and factors that place pressure on the abdominal wall, and therefore increase a person’s risk of a hernia, may include:

  • chronic straining, such as coughing and constipation
  • strenuous activities that cause straining, such as weightlifting
  • pregnancy
  • being overweight
  • cystic fibrosis
  • enlarged prostate
  • peritoneal dialysis
  • poor nutrition
  • smoking

Types of hernia

There are several types of hernia, with the most common being an inguinal hernia, which involves the lower abdominal wall in the groin area. It is more common in men than in women.

Other types of hernia include:

  • Incisional hernia: A person who had abdominal surgery may get this type of hernia.
  • Femoral hernia: This bulge can appear in the upper part of a person’s thigh, and is less common in men.
  • Hiatal hernia: This hernia is seen in the upper part of the stomach.
  • Umbilical hernia: If the muscle around a person’s belly button does not close after birth, it can result in this type of hernia.

Symptoms

Some people may not have hernia symptoms, and the bulge may be painless and only appears when a person coughs or strains. However, where there are hernia symptoms, they may include:

  • increased pain at the lump
  • pain when lifting
  • increase in the size of the bulge
  • aching at the bulge

Hernia surgery involves repairing the weakness in the muscular tissue. The procedure may depend on the type and size of the hernia.

The two main procedures for hernia surgery include open surgery and laparoscopic repair.

During an open hernia surgery, the surgeon makes a cut over the hernia and places the protruding organ back in place. The surgeon may also put mesh in the abdominal wall to strengthen the area and then close the cut with surgical glue, staples, or stitches.

A laparoscopic repair surgery,

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Low temps and high costs: Coronavirus vaccine distribution will face a “big challenge”

“CBS This Morning” explores whether America is ready for a coronavirus vaccine in a special three-part series, Road to a Vaccine. Part three airs Wednesday, October 28 on “CBS This Morning,” 7-9 a.m. on CBS. Watch part one here.


The earliest a coronavirus vaccine is expected to be ready for FDA authorization is the end of November. The CDC has already given states $200 million to prepare for distribution.

But shipping companies like DHL have a daunting task — preparing to transport a coronavirus vaccine without knowing where the vaccine will be manufactured, what the packaging will be or how cold it will need to be kept.

“There’s still a lot of things that are unknown. And we’ve been talking to the different manufacturers, who are in various phases of the clinical trials to get ready,” DHL’s CEO of Global Forwarding USA David Goldberg told CBS News senior medical correspondent Dr. Tara Narula. 

At the DHL cold-chain facility near Chicago’s O’Hare airport, vaccines are stored at various temperatures before they’re sent to doctors’ offices, pharmacies and hospitals.

“We’ve been moving the flu vaccine, the meningitis vaccine,” Goldberg said. “I think the challenge related to this vaccine is it’s, you know, a vaccine that the world needs as soon as possible, at once, which will make it very difficult in terms of logistics.”

The colder the vaccine, the more complicated the logistics. Pfizer’s coronavirus vaccine candidate needs to be kept at about minus 94 degrees Fahrenheit, while Moderna’s needs to be stored at minus 4 degrees Fahrenheit.

“A lot of providers don’t have that type of storage,” said North Dakota Immunization Program Manager Molly Howell.

The ultra-cold storage requirement will make it challenging for states to get the vaccine to their residents, Howell said. 

“Once a provider receives that vaccine, it really starts the clock that the vaccine needs to be administered within five days of when it’s put in the refrigerator,” she said. 

Pfizer’s vaccine is expected to ship in containers with almost 1,000 shots, which worries Howell.  

“The minimum increment of 1,000 doses and figuring out how we can get that to the rural areas is what’s keeping me up at night,” she said. “We’re thinking about the possibility of having to repackage and redistribute that vaccine into smaller quantities.”

While states like North Dakota gear up for mass distribution, the pandemic continues to batter state budgets. The trade associations that represent health officials across the country have asked Congress for $8.4 billion to help states distribute the vaccine.

States and their health departments are “tapped out financially,” said Georgetown professor Dr. Jesse Goodman. 

“Also, in terms of their human resources, they’ve been running at 100 miles an hour to do the contact tracing to make up for a not very efficient federal response,” he said. 

Goodman said there needs to be an effective national system for distributing and monitoring the vaccine.

“Otherwise, it’s going to be chaos,” Goodman said. “We may have multiple vaccines. We may

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Spiraling healthcare costs of wildfire smoke in California

The annual cost of smoke-related hospitalizations in the state may have quadrupled between 2012 and 2018, according to new research. The costs of this year’s wildfires are likely to be even higher.

According to the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection, since the start of 2020, there have been more than 8,500 wildfires across the state, incinerating more than 4.1 million acres of land.

At the time of writing, 6 of the 20 largest wildfires in the state’s history have occurred in 2020, including the largest on record, known as the August Complex, which has been burning since the middle of August.

Wildfires release large amounts of particulate matter (PM) and toxic gases, such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides.

Smoke particles that are 2.5 microns or smaller in size, known as PM2.5, are carried long distances by the wind. Their small size means that they are breathed deep into the lungs, where they have a wide range of effects on human health.

In addition to the severe harms to health and well-being, there are also financial costs.

Daniel Cullen, who recently gained his Ph.D. in health economics from the University of California Santa Barbara, has estimated the annual healthcare costs of wildfires in the state between 2012 and 2018 in terms of hospitalizations for respiratory and circulatory illnesses.

As part of research for his doctoral thesis, he calculated that the cost may have increased as much as fourfold over this period, from around $88 million in 2012 to $348 million in 2018.

This year is likely to be the worst on record, says Cullen, but given how extraordinary the 2020 wildfire season has been thus far, it is difficult to predict exactly how bad it will be. “When a big county like San Francisco is covered in smoke for 2 months, it is hard to say what is going to be the effect,” he says.

Cullen believes the costs of smoke exposure will continue to rise in coming decades as climate change increases the size, frequency, and intensity of wildfires.

“These healthcare costs need to be accounted for when we are thinking about the costs of climate change,” he says.

Cullen used data from California’s Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development regarding hospital admissions for respiratory and circulatory illnesses between 2012 and 2018.

To investigate possible relationships with smoke exposure, he correlated these admissions with satellite data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Hazard Mapping System Fire and Smoke Product. This tracks wildfire smoke plumes across the United States.

To account for other variables that could affect admissions, Cullen compared each county with itself for the same month in different years. This allowed him to calculate the increased number of admissions that were directly caused by wildfire smoke.

“Using this year to year variation in whether a specific area was exposed to wildfire smoke at a specific point in time, I am able to identify the causal impact of wildfire smoke exposure,” he writes.

He estimates

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