Novel Dementia Risk Charts Underline the Role of Lifestyle

Ten-year dementia risk charts that combine cardiovascular and genetic risk factors have been developed by Danish researchers and graphically underline the impact of modifiable lifestyle factors, even in the face of increased genetic risk.

The research was presented at the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) 2020 Virtual Congress, held online this year due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and simultaneously published October 7 in the European Heart Journal.

Ida Juul Rasmussen, MD, PhD, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, combined data from more than 60,000 patients — more than 2000 with dementia — with a median follow-up of 10 years.

By combining genetic risk factors with gender and age, as well as lifestyle factors — such as diabetes, smoking, and educational level — they were able to develop a series of risk charts similar to those for cardiovascular risk from the Framingham study.

This showed that a women at least 80 years of age with the highest genetic risk factors who had diabetes, smoked, and had a low educational level would have a 66% risk for dementia over 10 years; this would drop to 45% if she did not smoke or have diabetes and had a higher educational level.

With this pattern repeated across age groups and in both men and women, Rasmussen said that “the overall message from this study is that a healthy cardiovascular risk lifestyle attenuates genetic susceptibility for dementia.”

She added that “by combining genetic risk factors and modifiable risk factors, we are indeed able to identify the individuals at the highest risk of a future dementia disease that would benefit the most” from an intensive lifestyle intervention.

Ralph L. Sacco, MD, professor and chair of neurology and executive director at the Evelyn F. McKnight Brain Institute, Leonard Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, told theheart.org | Medscape Cardiology that an “important message” of the study is that lifestyle factors still have an appreciable impact on the risk for dementia, even in those at high genetic risk.

“I think the novelty here is the combination of cardiovascular lifestyle factors and the genetics,” Sacco said.

“In the past, there are numerous scores that have been developed on the lifestyle side, some developed on the genetic side, but this group combined both, and I think that makes it an important and well-done comprehensive risk model.”

However, Sacco noted that there were some limitations to the study, saying that the way in which some of the risk factors were defined “is pretty, I would say, crude,” citing, for example, the threshold for hypertension of 140/90 mm Hg blood pressure or medications, or 4 hours a week for high physical activity.

He also believes that the concept of the tables may not fit with the way in which, “nowadays, everybody works with an app and a portable device,” allowing them to enter continuous measures rather than rely on “categorical definitions.”

Sacco added that the very idea of using risk stratification to assign individuals to lifestyle interventions to lower

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Traditional Chinese Medicine: Acupuncture Points and Charts

What Are the Acupuncture Points?

The English translation of ‘acupuncture points’ is not very accurate. Acupuncture is one of the many healing methods used in traditional Chinese Medicine. It inserts fine needles into the sensitive points on the body to stimulate Jingluos (meridians) to cure diseases. These sensitive points are called ‘Shuxue’ or ‘Xuewei’ in Chinese Medicine, meaning ‘the transmitting points’. However, this name has been so widely used, there is no point to change it now for our discussion.

Acupuncture points are the responsive points or sensitive points on the meridians and other parts of the body. They are the special locations where energy is transmitted between the inner structures and the surface of the body. These spots can reflect disease or unhealthy conditions by giving forth painful sensations when touched or pressed. These points are (but not limited to) where the therapists apply treatments. When the body is deficient of positive energy, negative or harmful energy will be able to invade the body through these spots, causing illness. Stimulating the related points can boost and mobilize the positive energy, balance Yin/Yang energy and cure the disease. There are three types of points:

1. 14-main-meridian points

2. Extraordinary points

3.’Yes’ points.

The 14-main-meridian points are the spots on the 12 main meridians plus the spots on the governor and conception vessels. Each spot has a unique name and a fixed location. They are the main acupuncture points. The extraordinary points are the points that have names and fixed locations. These locations are not on a particular meridian. ‘Yes’ points are also called pain points, but they don’t have names or fixed locations. They are the sensitive points related to the diseases. The ‘yes ‘name came from a story. When treating a patient, the doctor pressed a spot unintentionally, and the patient uttered ‘oh yes’.

There are approximately 360 acupuncture points in total on the human body. With so many tiny points to remember, one can easily be intimidated. As a matter of fact, for self -healing and caring purposes, we don’t have to memorize all these points. We only need to remember roughly 20 most used and effective points. If you need to use more points, just look for them using the meridian and acupuncture point charts. Each point has a unique and meaningful name, which gives some key information about this particular point, such as main function, usage, location, or other. In English, the English spelling of the Chinese names are directly used. For people who don’t understand Chinese, it is hard to comprehend the significance of each name and, therefore hard to remember all the foreign sounding names.The format of the international symbols for acupuncture points is fairly easy. Since most of the points belong to one specific meridian (Jing), it only makes sense that their symbols are associated with those meridians. You can take two abbreviation letters of that meridian’s name and number all the points along the way, from the starting point to the end …

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