6 Best Fish for Brain Health, According to a Top MD

When I picture myself in my older years, I like to hope that my mind will be just as sharp as Sophia on Golden Girls. Sure, I still want to be able to go for walks around the neighborhood and get in on any shuffleboard games going on, but I definitely want my brain to still be strong, too. As with any health goal, preparing for the future means thinking in the present.

Functional medicine doctor Mark Hyman, MD is passionate about brain health, too. He talks about it a lot in his books, specifically focusing on how food can benefit brain health both in the immediate and long-term. And this week, he revealed his number one favorite brain-boosting food on Instagram. Can you guess what it is? Fish!

“Seafood is one of the best dietary sources of protein around, and it’s chock-full of nutrients like iodine, selenium, vitamin D, and B12,” Dr. Hyman wrote in the caption of his post. “But the biggest health benefits of fish comes from the two omega-3 fatty acids that we get from them and nowhere else.” He adds that these polyunsaturated fats—specifically DHA and EPA—are strongly linked to benefitting both the heart and the brain.  (Love a multitasking food.) “Large studies have found that omega-3 fats also protect you from type 2 diabetes, inflammation, autoimmune disease, and even depression,” Dr. Hyman adds.

Of course, there’s a lot of fish in the, er, sea so the next question becomes what type of fish to buy. Dr. Hyman’s favorites are sardines, anchovies, mackerel, herring, rainbow trout, and wild salmon—all of which have the highest amounts of DHA and EPA. He recommends minimizing the amount of tuna, swordfish, king mackerel, catfish, Chilean sea bass, and tilefish you consume because they tend to be higher in mercury.

It’s also important to consider sustainability when shopping for fish, and there are some helpful labels that can help. The main one to look for is the Marine Stewardship Council, which takes into account codes and guidelines provided by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), ISEAL, and the Global Sustainable Seafood Initiative (GSSI). These standards require fisheries to combat overfishing, have a minimal impact on the environment, and other requirements.

Even if you’re not going grocery shopping as often, you can still stock up on brain-healthy fish by buying frozen seafood, which will last longer and also tends to be less expensive. “Fish can be even more nutritious when frozen,” registered dietitian Tracy Lockwood Beckerman, RD previously told Well+Good. This is because it’s typically frozen almost as soon as it’s caught, which preserves nutrients at their peak.

Will taking fish oil supplements give you the same benefits as eating seafood? Watch the video below to find out:



So next time you’re at the grocery store and want to fill your cart with something you know will benefit your brain, you know what to do: go fish.

Oh hi! You look like someone who loves free workouts,

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Combining Mixed Reality Tech With Brain Signals Could Improve Rehabilitative Medicine

A new headset and software platform allows researchers and developers of mixed reality programs the opportunity to incorporate signals from the brain and body into their technology, something that has wide potential for use in rehabilitative medicine.

Virtual and augmented reality has already been used to treat patients with a range of psychiatric disorders including ADHD, PTSD and anxiety, but this tech could help improve how effective it is.

“You can use virtual reality to put people into those environments and throttle how intense the experience is, but if you could know how intense the reaction is that someone is having, you can decide whether to dial it up a little bit, or dial it down a little bit just to make sure that they’re not overwhelmed by the immersion,” says Conor Russomanno, CEO of OpenBCI, a Brooklyn-based startup that developed the Galea headset.

Another application of the technology, is to give people with spinal injuries or other forms of paralysis more freedom and to allow those who have lost limbs the ability to better control prosthetics.

There are different types of brain-computer interfaces and many involve actually implanting electrodes into the brain or spinal cord to either give people the ability to control a computer, or an artificial limb. However, the OpenBCI technology relies on external, non-invasive electroencephalogram readings to monitor brain activity (taken from sensors on a cap).

“The amount of control and the fidelity you have, obviously increases with the signal quality, and the best signal quality you’re going to get is by putting electrodes down into the brain,” says Russomanno.

“But, a lot of the magic happens in the classification and the machine learning on a case on a person by person basis. And so, this is where I think that BCI technology is going to be used for personalizing control.”

There are of course big attractions to the non-invasive nature of this technology. If the artificial intelligence and machine learning side of the software can make up for the reduced signal then it has great potential to help people in need of this technology.

Russomanno set up OpenBCI with one of his professors after leaving grad school 6 years ago. The company is unusual in that it has been developing inexpensive, non-invasive, open source brain-computer interface technology for the last 6 years.

It’s unusual as most tech companies keep the technology behind their products under high levels of secrecy. “I think it’s super important that that innovation takes place in the public domain, in a way where people have a variety of backgrounds and disciplines can contribute,” emphasizes Russomanno.

“It doesn’t take place behind closed doors where the incentives of what’s being put into the world, and what’s being used by the users, can be misaligned with the best interest of the users themselves.”

Since the company started, many tech companies and researchers have used the OpenBCI tech to develop

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Scientists identify brain cells that help drive bodily reaction to fear, anxiety — ScienceDaily

Strong emotions such as fear and anxiety tend to be accompanied and reinforced by measurable bodily changes including increased blood pressure, heart rate and respiration, and dilation of the eyes’ pupils. These so-called “physiological arousal responses” are often abnormally high or low in psychiatric illnesses such as anxiety disorders and depression. Now scientists at the UNC School of Medicine have identified a population of brain cells whose activity appears to drive such arousal responses.

The scientists, whose study is published in Cell Reports, found that artificially forcing the activity of these brain cells in mice produced an arousal response in the form of dilated pupils and faster heart rate, and worsened anxiety-like behaviors.

The finding helps illuminate the neural roots of emotions, and point to the possibility that the human-brain counterpart of the newly identified population of arousal-related neurons might be a target of future treatments for anxiety disorders and other illnesses involving abnormal arousal responses.

“Focusing on arousal responses might offer a new way to intervene in psychiatric disorders,” said first author Jose Rodríguez-Romaguera, PhD, assistant professor in the UNC Department of Psychiatry and member of the UNC Neuroscience Center, and co-director of the Carolina Stress Initiative at the UNC School of Medicine.

Rodríguez-Romaguera and co-first author Randall Ung, PhD, an MD-PhD student and adjunct assistant professor in the Department of Psychiatry, led this study when they were members of the UNC laboratory of Garret Stuber, PhD, who is now at the University of Washington.

“This work not only identifies a new population of neurons implicated in arousal and anxiety, but also opens the door for future experiments to systematically examine how molecularly defined cell types contribute to complex emotional and physiological states,” Stuber said. “This will be critical going forward for developing new treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders.”

Anxiety disorders, depression, and other disorders featuring abnormally high or low arousal responses affect a large fraction of the human population, including tens of millions of adults in the United States alone. Treatments may alleviate symptoms, but many have adverse side effects, and the root causes of these disorders generally remain obscure.

Untangling these roots amid the complexity of the brain has been an enormous challenge, one that laboratory technology has only recently begun to surmount.

Rodríguez-Romaguera, Ung, Stuber and colleagues examined a brain region within the amygdala called the BNST (bed nucleus of the stria terminalis), which has been linked in prior research to fear and anxiety-like behaviors in mice.

Increasingly, scientists view this region as a promising target for future psychiatric drugs. In this case, the researchers zeroed in on a set of BNST neurons that express a neurotransmitter gene, Pnoc, known to be linked to pain sensitivity and more recently to motivation.

The team used a relatively new technique called two-photon microscopy to directly image BNST Pnoc neurons in the brains of mice while the mice were presented with noxious or appealing odors — stimuli that reliably induce fear/anxiety and reward behaviors, respectively, along with the appropriate

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Does Hard Work Help Preserve the Brain? | Health News

By Cara Murez, HealthDay Reporter

(HealthDay)

MONDAY, NOV 2, 2020 (HealthDay News) — Physical activity is known to help prevent dementia and disease, but it’s possible that the kind you do makes a difference.

A new study found that hard physical work not only doesn’t lower the risk of dementia, it increases the risk of developing the disease.

Researchers found that people who do hard physical work have a 55 percent higher risk of developing dementia than those doing sedentary work.

“The WHO [World Health Organization] guide to preventing dementia and disease on the whole mentions physical activity as an important factor. But our study suggests that it must be a ‘good’ form of physical activity, which hard physical work is not,” said researcher Kirsten Nabe-Nielsen, an associate professor from the Department of Public Health at the University of Copenhagen. “Guides from the health authorities should therefore differentiate between physical activity in your spare time and physical activity at work, as there is reason to believe that the two forms of physical activity have opposite effects.”

Another study from the University of Copenhagen recently showed that a healthy lifestyle can halve the risk of developing dementia.

Researchers from the University of Copenhagen and the National Research Centre for the Working Environment used data from the Copenhagen Male Study, in which 4,721 Danish men reported in the 1970s about the type of work they did for 14 Copenhagen-based companies. Over the years, researchers compiled health data on the respondents.

Now, researchers are collecting more data with the intent to identify healthier ways of doing hard physical work in a way that it has an “exercise effect.”

“A lot of workplaces have already taken steps to improve the health of their staff. The problem is that it is the most well-educated and resourceful part of the population that uses these initiatives. Those with a shorter education often struggle with overweight, pain and poor physical fitness, even though they take more steps during the day and to a larger extent use their body as a tool,” said study co-author Andreas Holtermann, from the National Research Centre for the Working Environment.

“For workmen, it is not enough, for example, to avoid heavy lifts if they wish to remain in the profession until age 70. People with a shorter education doing manual labour also need to take preventive steps by strengthening the body’s capacity via, for example, exercise and strength training,” Holtermann said in a university news release.

The research was published recently in the Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports.

SOURCE: University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, news release, Oct. 26, 2020

Copyright © 2020 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

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American Brain Tumor Association Awards 11 Research Grants to Advance Brain Tumor Research

American Brain Tumor Association Awards 11 Research Grants to Advance Brain Tumor Research

PR Newswire

CHICAGO, Oct. 30, 2020

CHICAGO, Oct. 30, 2020 /PRNewswire/ — As the nation’s first nonprofit organization committed to funding brain tumor research and providing education and information across all tumor types, the American Brain Tumor Association (ABTA) persists in its mission, announcing today the investment of $368,000 towards 11 new research grants to foster innovation in diagnosis and treatment of brain tumors in adults and children.

American Brain Tumor Association
American Brain Tumor Association

The ABTA’s grant program plays an integral role in advancing the understanding and treatment of brain tumors. Dedicated to investing in early-stage investigators who have unique perspectives to drive the future of brain tumor science and treatment, the ABTA provides research grants to medical students, post-doctoral fellows, and early-career faculty. This investment is even more critical with the COVID-19 pandemic shifting research priorities and impacting government funding for brain tumor research.

“We are excited to continue our legacy of supporting innovative research and early-career researchers, especially during this challenging time. With almost $33 million invested to date, the ABTA is committed to funding the research that will one day lead to cures,” said Nicole Willmarth, Ph.D., chief mission officer, ABTA.

With the Southeastern Brain Tumor Foundation (SBTF) investing more than $100,000 to support three research projects, the ongoing partnership between the ABTA and SBTF exemplifies the strengths of the ABTA’s rigorous grant selection process and accelerates the research investments of both organizations.

“The vast potential of the new projects we fund and the incredible efforts by the researchers, renews my optimism that better treatments are on the horizon. Our collaborations with organizations, like SBTF, amplify our ability to achieve our common goal of improving outcomes for brain tumor patients,” said Nicole Willmarth.

This year’s slate of research investigates critical areas in neuro-oncology research including experimental therapeutics, the role of the immune system and immunotherapies, as well as factors that modify gene function in brain tumor cells.

The ABTA congratulates the 2020 grant recipients listed below. To learn more about the grant recipients and their research projects, visit https://www.abta.org/research/research-funding-impact/.

Basic Research Fellowships are two-year, $100,000 grants awarded to post-doctoral fellows who are mentored by established and nationally-recognized experts in the neuro-oncology field.

  • Emily Darrow, Ph.D., St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital

  • Tyler Miller, M.D., Ph.D., Massachusetts General Hospital

Discovery Grants are one-year, $50,000 grants supporting cutting-edge, innovative approaches that have the potential to change current diagnostic or treatment standards of care for either adult or pediatric brain tumors.

  • Munjal Acharya, Ph.D., University of California, Irvine

  • Lan Hoang-Minh, Ph.D., University of Florida

  • Gary Kohanbash, Ph.D., Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh

Medical Student Summer Fellowships are $3,000 grants awarded to medical students to conduct brain tumor research projects under the guidance of neuro-oncology experts. Through these grants, the ABTA seeks to encourage physician-scientists to enter and remain in the brain tumor field.

  • Hasan Alrefai, B.S., University of Alabama at

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SRS Instead of WBRT for Patients With Multiple Brain Metastases

Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) should replace whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) as the new standard of care for patients with four or more brain metastases, say researchers who report results from a randomized trial conducted in patients with four to 15 brain metastases

“SRS was associated with reduced risk of neurocognitive deterioration compared to WBRT, as demonstrated by a constellation of neurocognitive tests, individually or by composite scores,” said lead author Jing Li, MD, PhD, associate professor of radiation oncology and codirector of the Brain Metastasis Clinic at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston.

He was speaking at the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) 2020 Annual Meeting, which was held online this year because of the COVID pandemic.

“The results from this phase 3 randomized trial strongly support the use of SRS in patients with four to 15 brain metastases to better preserve cognitive function and to minimize interruption of systemic therapy, without compromising overall survival,” said Li.

SRS is already the standard of care for patients with one to three brain metastases. Two previous phase 3 randomized trials showed that SRS was better at preserving cognitive function without compromising overall survival in comparison to WBRT.

However, there has been some controversy over the use of SRS for patients with multiple brain metastases, commented study discussant Sue S. Yom, MD, PhD, a professor in the Departments of Radiation Oncology and Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, University of California, San Francisco.

This study has shown “in a practice-changing manner that giving SRS can improve the quality of life of patients with metastatic disease,” she said.

Up to 30% of cancer patients develop brain metastases. Historically, these have been associated with poor overall survival, in the range of 1 to 4 months.

Reduces Cognitive Decline

The new trial involved 72 patients with four to 15 untreated, nonmelanoma brain metastases (up to 20 lesions were allowed at the time of treatment); the median number of brain metastases was eight. Most (83%) of the trial participants were White, nearly half were aged 60 years or older, and 58% were women.

Patients were randomly assigned to receive either SRS (15–24 Gy per Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 9005) or WBRT (30 Gy in 10 fractions). On the basis of previous research, 62% of patients in the WBRT arm were also given memantine, a dementia drug that can help preserve cognitive function.

All participants completed neurocognitive testing, including testing of learning, memory, attention span, executive function, verbal fluency, processing speed, and motor dexterity, at enrollment and longitudinally.

The primary endpoints were Hopkins Verbal Learning Test – Revised Total Recall (HVLT-R TR) score and local control at 4 months. Secondary endpoints included overall survival, distant brain failure, toxicity, and time to initiation of systemic therapy.

In the primary endpoint analysis, at 4 months, the HVLT-R TR standardized z-score increased by +0.21 (standard error [SE], 0.27) for patients who received SRS, but it declined by –0.74 (SE, 0.36) for WBRT-treated patients (P = .041). On the basis

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Is Northwest Biotheraputics a Buy Ahead of Its Brain Tumor Vaccine Clinical Data Release?

When it comes to winning biotech stocks this year, coronavirus vaccine developers automatically come to many investors’ minds. However, one of the top-performing stocks in the sector is Northwest Biotherapeutics (OTC:NWBO), which focuses on immunotherapies that treat cancer, and has returned a staggering 408% since January.

The main reason why investors are so excited about Northwest Biotherapeutics’ prospects is that the company’s 14-year-long phase 3 clinical trial to evaluate its one and only immunotherapy candidate, DCVax-L, as a treatment for glioblastoma, has concluded. Should you consider buying the stock in anticipation of the data release? Let’s find out together. 

3-D illustration of a dendritic cell.

Image source: Getty Images.

Treatment background

Glioblastoma is a deadly form of brain cancer prevalent in up to 15% of people with brain tumors. Even after patients receive standard of care (SOC) treatments consisting of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, their median survival time comes down to just 15.5 months in historical studies. DCVax-L is an experimental immunotherapy that seeks to stimulate patients’ own immune systems to fight cancer growth. 

The potential biologic has been in phase 3 clinical trials since December 2006. In the study, all glioblastoma patients receive SOC treatments, while a random portion also receives DCVax-L via upper arm injections. A key trial endpoint requires at least 233 patient deaths out of a total of 331 participants enrolled to calculate a survival benefit for DCVax-L, if any. The company completed its study on July 24, and the data is currently being reviewed by statisticians. In the meantime, speculations on the results have ranged from wildly enthusiastic to pessimistic from excited investors and short-sellers. 

The bullish case

The bullish case for Northwest Biotherapeutics stock is straightforward: The DCVax-L clinical trial was supposed to wrap up as early as November 2016, but had to keep going because the projected number of deaths had not occurred by then.

Around the time when the trial was enrolling, only 3% of glioblastoma patients who received SOC survived over five years. Due to extremely low survival rates for patients who receive SOC treatments, bullish investors argue that there is no other logical explanation for the clinical study going into overtime than DCVax-L keeping patients alive longer than expected. 

The bearish case

The bearish case is a lot more complicated.

Clinical trials investigating experimental biologics for deadly diseases with a lack of therapeutic options usually have pre-planned interim analyses. DCVax-L’s phase 3 trial had two such analyses built into the study.

The analysis is conducted by an independent data-monitoring committee (DMC) that can recommend that the trial stop early if an experimental therapy demonstrates statistically meaningful efficacy against SOC treatments. This way, the biologic can quickly advance to the approval stage in order to save more lives.

Northwest Biotherapeutics’ DMC carried out two interim analyses on the DCVax-L study in 2017 and 2018 (more on this later). Both times, however, the company published the DMC’s findings as blinded, and the trial continued. Unfortunately, that doesn’t make any sense at all in the context of

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Measuring brain tissue damage accurately identifies cognitive decline, researchers say

Oct. 27 (UPI) — By analyzing brain tissue damage using a new MRI evaluation tool, researchers accurately identified people with early signs of cognitive decline up to 70% of the time, a study published Tuesday by the journal Academic Radiology found.

The approach uses magnetic resonance imaging to identify — and measure the number and size — of bright spots on the mostly gray images of the brain called white matter hyperintensities, or lesions, the researchers said.

These spots have long been linked to memory loss and emotional problems, especially as people age. Now, newly available MRI technologies could make it possible for them to be used for diagnosis of dementia, the researchers said.

“White matter lesion captured by MRI scans may reveal cognitive decline much earlier than behavioral symptoms,” study co-author Jingyun “Josh” Chen told UPI.

“Amounts of white matter lesions above the normal range should serve as an early warning sign for patients and physicians,” said Chen, a research assistant professor of neurology at New York University Langone Health.

Roughly 6 million adults in the United States have dementia, according to the Alzheimer’s Association.

Although the condition is common, it remains challenging to accurately diagnose, and no effective treatments exist, according to Chen and his colleagues.

The bright spots seen on MRI scans represent fluid-filled holes in the brain — lesions that are believed to develop from the breakdown of blood vessels that nourish nerve cells.

Earlier research has shown that increased numbers of spots and their presence in the center of the brain is linked with worsening dementia and other brain-damaging conditions, such as stroke and depression.

Current methods for grading white matter lesions, however, rely on little more than the “trained eye” using an imprecise three-point scale, according to the researchers.

The new tool, called the white matter hyperintensities toolbox and developed by Chen and his colleagues at NYU Grossman School of Medicine, is intended to provide neurologists with a uniform, objective method for calculating the spots’ volume and location in the brain.

For this study, Chen and his colleagues randomly selected 72 MRI scans from a national database of adults age 70 and older who participated in the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, a research project seeking to identify clinical, imaging, genetic and biochemical biomarkers for the early detection and tracking of Alzheimer’s disease.

Using MRI techniques to map the brain’s surface, the researchers then used the new tool to calculate the precise position and volume measurements for all observed white matter spots or lesions.

When researchers cross-checked their measurements, they found that seven out of 10 calculations correctly matched the patient’s actual diagnosis.

With the standardized tracking and measuring tool, physicians could monitor the growth of white matter lesions in patients with suspected dementia, the researchers said.

White matter brain measures alone are not sufficient to diagnose early dementia, Chen said, but should be considered along with other factors. This includes a history of brain injury, memory loss and hypertension, as well as clear symptoms

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Scientists create living 3D-printed brain aneurysm from cells

The artificial aneurysm was created using a 3D printer and human cells (LLNL)
The artificial aneurysm was created using a 3D printer and human cells. (LLNL)

It sounds like something out of a horror film: scientists have created a living brain aneurysm using 3D-printed human brain cells and blood. 

Caused by a weakening in the artery walls, brain aneurysms are characterised by a “ballooning” or bulging of a blood vessel in the brain and can be fatal if they burst.

Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) created a living, bioprinted aneurysm so that researchers could operate on it.

A team led by engineers William “Rick” Hynes and Monica Moya 3D-printed blood vessels with human cerebral cells. 

Read more: Signs and symptoms of a brain aneurysm

Hynes performed a repair procedure on the printed aneurysm and inserted a catheter into the blood vessel before tightly packing platinum coils inside the aneurysm sac.

The researchers introduced blood plasma into the aneurysm and observed the formation of a blood clot where the coils were located, cutting it off from fluid flow.

The researchers also were able to observe the “post-op” healing process of the cells within the vessels.

LLNL scientists said the platform, when combined with computer modelling, could allow researchers to design treatments specific to each patient.

Read more: Drug derived from ketamine ‘can treat depression in hours’

“While there are a lot of promising treatment options, some still have a long way to go,” said Moya, the project’s lead investigator. 

“Animal models aren’t necessarily the best way to try out these options, as they lack direct observation of treatment effects and have uncontrollable aneurysm geometries.

“Having this robust, human in vitro testing platform could help facilitate new treatments. If we can replicate aneurysms as much as we need to with these devices, we might help accelerate some of these products into the clinic and essentially provide patients with better treatment options.”

Read more: Ketamine-like spray not given green light by NHS

The researchers believe the new testing platform could lead to more personalised treatments for people with brain aneurysms.

Hynes said: “We looked at the problem and thought that if we could pair computational modelling and experimental approaches, maybe we could come up with a more deterministic method of treating aneurysms or selecting treatments that could best serve the patient.

“Now we can start to build the framework of a personalised model that a surgical practitioner could use to determine the best method for treating an aneurysm.”

Watch: How to stimulate brain health during lockdown

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Bilingualism Benefits The Brain, Helps Delay Onset Of Alzheimer’s Disease

KEY POINTS

  • Bilingualism prompts the brain to work harder
  • It helps in keeping the brain healthy
  • Learning a new language is possible even in adulthood

The Alzheimer’s Association revealed that more than five million Americans are currently living with the disease and the number is projected to reach 14 million by 2050. The numbers may be grim, but recent research showed that there is one way to delay its onset, and that is through bilingualism. Learning a new language at any age can greatly help keep the brain healthier.

Dr. Ellen Bialystok, a Canadian psychologist and professor who has the rank of Distinguished Research Professor at York University, Toronto, has made one of the most compelling researches on the relationship between bilingualism and the brain. Bialystok, in a research published in Neurology, titled, “Delaying the onset of Alzheimer’s disease, Bilingualism as a form of cognitive reserve,” revealed that bilinguals often receive a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s about four to five years later than monolinguals. 

“The more you use another language, the better you get at it. Well, that’s not surprising, but along with that, the more you use two languages, the more your brain subtly rewires,” Bialystok told CNN 

Bialystok noted that in terms of the benefits that the brain gets when it comes to bilingualism, levels of education do not matter at all. She highlighted that one of the most profound results of bilingualism was observed among illiterates or those who did not have any formal education. Speaking two languages was the only real way that their brains receive stimulation, such that the exercise provides protection to their brains as they grow older.

Bilingualism good for the brain Bilingualism benefits the brain. Photo: jamesoladujoye/Pixabay

Bialystok stated that the number of years that one speaks two languages would mean a longer period that the brain keeps on reorganizing. The earlier that people start becoming bilingual, the better.

Tamar Gollan, professor at the University of California, San Diego, said that people could not just turn off a language. Bilinguals are faced with everyday choices that monolinguals do not face. To this effect, the brain works harder to speak two languages.

Learning a new language even as an adult can greatly benefit brain health. Just like exercise, wherein the more that one exercise, the greater that one expands his capacity for oxygen. By exercising the brain more through bilingualism, the brain maintains its flexibility. Add in physical activities, eating healthy and sufficient amounts of sleep, and one may be able to keep the brain healthier.

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