Treatment of Back and Joint Pain in Chinese Medicine

Anyone who has experienced a painful injury is all too familiar with its consequences, especially the accompanying unpleasant sensation and loss of mobility. Pain is the most frequent reason for physician consultations in the United States and results in half of all Americans to seek medical care annually. Chronic pain is the third most common healthcare problem and impacts productivity, mobility, and quality of life.

Pain relates to a sensation that hurts. If you feel pain it hurts, you feel discomfort, distress and perhaps agony, depending on the severity of it. Pain can be steady and constant, in which case it may be an ache. It might be a throbbing pain – a pulsating pain. The pain could have a pinching sensation, or a stabbing one. Only the person who is experiencing the pain can describe it properly. Pain is a very individual experience.

This article highlights several of the herbal formulas and supplements we use frequently in the clinic to help alleviate acute or chronic pain

In Chinese medicine, physical injuries, whether old or new, are considered to involve a blood stasis syndrome. When something doesn't move, it creates a logjam and discomfort. The quality of the pain depends on what is being blocked-blood, Qi, yang, etc. Injuries which do not heal within a typical time-a few weeks-may become complicated by other syndromes, both constitutional (eg, blood deficiency, qi stagnation) and circumstantial (eg, invasion of wind or damp).

Often when patients complain of pain in any part of an extremity, including shoulder, elbow, wrist, knees, etc., I often pick an appropriate formula such as Pueraria 10 or Angelica 14 which may be appropriate for shoulder, neck, and head pain , with their focus on dispelling wind and regulating qi. For weakness and inflammation of tendons, Acanthopanax 10 provides pain relief and tonification to aid in strengthening activities.

For traumatic injuries such as exercise injuries, or falls I consider formulas such as San Qi 17 and Myrrh Tablets which are blood moving and blood vitalizing formulas. Both formulas include myrrh, frankincense, persica, carthamus, tang-kuei, peony (white or red), cinnamon twig, and curcuma.

Repetitive stress, old injuries, and persisting joint pain are usually treated by adding tonification along with herbs that counter the invasion of wind. Joint problems can be treated by Chiang-huo 13 for wind-damp accumulation or Drynaria 12 for deficiency syndrome.

For low back pain, I would consider a formula such as Eucommia 18 coupled with Acanthopanax 10. Eucommia 18 contains many tonifying and blood moving herbs. In many instances low back pain consists of tight or knotted muscles. The treatment principle is to remove toxins, nourish the blood and relax the muscle and tendons.

Chinese herbs, Acupuncture, cupping, massage, relaxation techniques, and dietary changes, are some of the many things you can do to help you find relief from your pain.

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A Brief on the Use of Essential Oils With Traditional Chinese Medicine

The use of essential oils based on Chinese medicine has proven to be an exceptional modality in gaining maximum results with clients. This ancient healing system naturally adopts the use of essential oils.

This case study will give the reader an overview of how to work with the Spleen and Stomach (Earth Element).

Two of the major pathogenic factors in Chinese medicine are Damp and Cold. These influences cause stagnation of Qi. In short, when there is stagnant qi the energy does not flow properly and the body will experience signs and symptoms that mirror this.

According to Chinese medicine a primary function of the Earth element (Spleen and Stomach) is to transform and transport postnatal qi. Our postnatal qi is associated with diet, which includes what we absorb from our environment. (Gian 2015) (1) TCM physiology states, that the Spleen ascends the pure postnatal qi and the stomach descends the impure. So, if the Qi is deficient the Spleen will not be able to do its proper job and this causes stagnation. A cardinal sign of Spleen Qi Deficiency and Stagnation is flatulence. This was the case with one of the clients, a 35 year old woman.

The below case study illustrates the healing protocols in dealing with flatulence as a symptom of Spleen Qi Deficiency accompanied by the secondary complaint of low libido.

A client had the chief complaint of excessive flatulence that worsened with cold and damp weather. Her flatulence was hard to control, and made her feel embarrassed when she was not home. The frequency could be high, as in 1 to 2 minutes per time for 10 minutes. It further complicated the condition when she drank black tea, green tea, coffee, iced tea – both hot and cold.

To a great extent, the healing protocols were done within a TCM context. I successfully treated the symptoms with the blend below:

2 drops of Ginger (Zingiber officinale)

1 drop of Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)

1 drop of Spike Lavender (Lavandula latifolia)

1 drop of Clary Sage (Salvia sclarea)

1 drop of Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) 10 ml Olive Oil

Ginger is carminative, which can help to prevent gas. It can also warm the body and improve the circulation. The high ester content is beneficial to prevent gas. It is warming, so it can help improve circulation and bring the Qi upwards. It aids digestion and tones the body. I added Spike Lavender for the purpose of removing dampness from the lungs. Clary sage is a very calming oil which can calm the CNS. It helps to relieve the stress and anxiety of my client. Additionally, it can stimulate the immune system – which can bring the body back to normal. Lavender is a calming oil which can help ease the digestive tension (which could be a leading cause to the gas emission problem of the client).

Ginger is a warming oil that assists in strengthening the Spleen and warms the Kidneys. Ginger is integral for two reasons, one …

Get Fast and Safe Results From Ayurvedic Medicine for Anxiety and Panic Attacks

Many people suffer from panic attacks owing to factors like depression and inner turmoil. They last for about half an hour typically, though it can vary from person to person. Though panic attacks in themselves are not physically dangerous, it may lead to complications like loss of control over the body, repeated panic disorders and even trigger suicidal tendencies.

A panic attack is Nature's way of telling you to slow it down. Hectic work schedules and traumatic regular habits of smoking and drinking can make you hollow from the inside. Drugs are never an option. They must be treated naturally for a permanent effect.

Causes of Panic Attacks:

There can be many reasons behind panic attacks, like:

  1. Phobias: Most attacks are prompted as a direct result of contact with a phobic situation or object.
  2. Triggering Causes : Personal loss of a loved one, abrupt life changes, etc can cause emotional distress aimed triggering panic attacks.
  3. Environmental factors : Cumulative stress over time, overcautious view of things, the habit of procrastinating, etc are also major causes.

Ayurveda and Its Significance:

Ayurveda is the most ancient system of universal healing through home remedies and natural herbs. It operates on the fundamental Vedic principle of the five elements of the universe.

It is based on the simple analogy of a proper diet, healthy lifestyle and exercise.

Ayurvedic herbs are the best medicine for anxiety as they help maintain balance among the three doshas of the body-Vata, Pitta and Kapha, the elements of body, mind, and spirit. They are natural remedies for depression and anxiety and helps cure ailments from its roots.

Natural Depression and Panic Attack Treatments:

With proper therapy and natural medication, overcoming depression is easy. Some of these treatments include:

  1. Enough Sleep and Water: Not getting proper sleep can make you cranky and irritated. Set a proper routine and make some changes in your lifestyle like no use of electronic devices and no overworking for a sound sleep. Drink lots of water to stay hydrated.
  2. Eat Healthy: Folic acid and omega-3 fatty acids help ease depression. Add salmon, tuna, spinach, and avocado to your diet to get these nutritional values. Drink vegetable juice and have your food warm and cooked. Vatas don't flourish on cold food.
  3. Proper Exercise: Simply walk and breathe in the open natural air a few times a week. It releases feel-good chemicals termed endorphins. It provides long-term benefits to cure anxiety and depression.

Natural Herbs for Curing Panic Attacks:

Herbal remedies are the best anxiety treatment in Ayurveda. Some of them include:

  1. Kava: It helps relax the brain and body, allowing allowing the person to calm down. Its roots are known for their anesthetic and sedative qualities. It can be consumed as a herbal tea.
  2. Chamomile: A cup of Chamomile tea is the best medicine for anxiety if you're having a jittery moment. It soothes the mind and helps the panic disappear. However , it should not be taken by lactating or pregnant women as it can

Watch Out for Alternative Medicine Charlatans!

Forget those Crystals

As an integrative medical practitioner, I keep an open mind to new modalities of evaluating illness and treating disease. My interest and pursuit of complementary or alternative medical therapies has led me to selectively incorporate some of what I have come across. For example, in my practice, I embrace acupuncture for the diagnosis and treatment of certain disease states. Also, Traditional Chinese Herbal medicine and western herbs have been quite helpful and marked with successful results for many of our patients. However, there are many who claim to be practitioners of "alternative medicine" who pray on the gullible and ignorant. This fact hit home as never before when I attended and participated in a "Holistic Expo" in Atlanta in mid September this year. I was a guest speaker on the topic of super nutrients in health and longevity and had a presence on the Expo floor to promote my dietary supplement line and integrative practice in Savannah. After viewing over 160 vendor booths and reviewing the list of topics being lectured I was appalled and horrified at what I saw.

To my amazement the bulk of the "practitioners" present at this supposed health (Mind-Body-Spirit) Expo appeared to be charlatans, fakes and quacks. They offered no credentials and held no certification. There was no governing body that oversaw what they offered or preached. What amazed me more were the number of visitors to the expo who were duped into believing there was actually "healing" going on. I view these people as entertainers, but certainly not healers. Many of the vendors offered their services or wares for sale on the spot. A typical "Divine Psychic reading" could cost up to $ 35. A Channeling session with crystals was $ 5 per minute. And people were lining up for this. I was very uncomfortable and very out to place amongst this group. The vendor to my immediate left was comprised of three "healers", a fellow who would sketch your spiritual drawing, and two females, one a psychic, the other a tarot card reader. Across from me was a vendor for a distance learning "institution" that offered "degrees" in nutrition, herbology, spiritual healing and Reiki. To my right was a "massage therapist / channeler / healer" who on several occasions had his victim on a table where he would rub them rather aggressively and wave rocks and crystals over their heads and chest. Yet another booth offered spontaneous healing where practitioners pranced around their victim chanting and waving their hands in an effort to expel the evil forces causing disease. They also showed a videotape repeatedly of a non-surgical way of extracting tumors from bodies seemingly through their skin with instantaneous healing.

Those at the booths (and in the lecture hall) purported to be able to deliver unbelievable health advice from celebrities on the other side (Celebrity Channelers). Many were divine psychics, and one booth offer "aromatherapy" for people & pets. One Native American fellow in Indian garb spoke of "Meeting …

Disease Model in Alternative and Orthodox Medicine

The current orthodox medicine model of disease is outdated. It looks at disease as "damage" to the human body, which is supposed to be "fixed" or "repaired" the very same way as, for example, a car. But this mechanical approach does not include the thousands of adaptive biological reactions that start immediately after the body's "damage" begins and that accompany the entire healing process up to complete or partial recovery.

What it means is that during all diseases, from the very beginning, immediate recovery processes accompany destructive processes. Unfortunately, drugs and surgery can interfere with the recovery processes, affecting the very gentle physiological equilibrium of the body called homeostasis and thus bring more damage. This is what is called side effects of drug therapy.

The essence of the condition named "disease" is, therefore, far more complicated than the traditional "damage – fix" model. The disease or pathology is just another physiological state of the body, which can progress or regress according to the body's needs.

Current physical, emotional and mental condition of the body heavily influences the beginning and outcome of the disease. As a matter of fact, most people are living with "diseases" bouncing back and forth from physiological "norm". In this case, instead of "treatment of disease" a better term to use would be "regulation of physiological processes", which more precisely exact what's going on in the body. This is the alternative medicine model.

Because drugs suppress natural bodily adaptive physiological reactions, they can effectively block natural self-healing mechanisms of human bodies. Of course, it's much easier to label group of symptoms as a disease the way orthodox medicine does, and prescribe drugs accordingly, but it has nothing in common with the real healing.

The real healing occurs when all physiological processes related to the physical, emotional and mental condition of the body become regulated and start to work in harmony. This usually happens with use of alternative medicine modalities. Sometimes, the balance can be achieved just through diet and lifestyle modifications. Sometimes, we need to use more "heavy weapons" like herbal or homeopathic remedies or supplements, acupuncture, reflexology, Reiki, yoga or any other conventional healing modality. But the result is always impressive – gentle and profound healing, happening naturally, without toxic side effects and further damage to the body.

Thus, the main difference between alternative and orthodox disease model lies not just in a definition of pathology named disease, but also in a completely different approach to healing. Instead of "fixing the body" in orthodox medicine, we are talking about "regulating and balancing the body" in alternative medicine.

It is absolutely evident that "one size fits all" medicine simply does not work anymore. While it perfectly suits the needs of pharmaceutical companies, it does not benefit most patients who are in real need of custom-made individualized treatment programs without side effects. Given the rising ineffectiveness of mainstream medicine, it's not surprising that patients turn to alternative medicine for a cure. Statistics speak for themselves. According to the …

Naturopathic Medicine and The Evolving Paradigm Shift Towards Holistic Healthcare

We are in the midst of a paradigm shift. Our understanding of health and medicine is broadening, and both practitioners and patients are embracing a holistic, integrated approach. Patients are becoming more informed via the internet, word of mouth, and diligent research that there is something significantly missing from medicine in the current standard of care in the American healthcare system. What they are finding, and flocking to, is a group of physicians that have likewise embraced this broadened approach to medicine. Some of these practitioners adopted a more holistic approach after realizing that there was something missing from their medical training, and sought out post-graduate trainings to complement their understanding of holistic medicine. Other practitioners discovered their passion before entering medical school, and pursued the study of naturopathic medicine.

So this begets the questions, What is Naturopathic Medicine, and where does Naturopathic Medicine fit in the paradigm shift?

What is This field of medicine

Naturopathic doctors (ND) are specialists in integrative medicine, combining extensive education and training in both natural and conventional medicine, emphasizing the use of the safest, least invasive methods to treat disease by restoring health. The education entails a 4-year graduate level program, national board examinations in basic and clinical sciences, and curriculum including basic sciences, clinical sciences, diagnostic techniques and tests, pharmacology, minor surgery, and range of natural therapies including botanical medicine, nutrition and nutritional biochemistry, physical medicine, homeopathy, eastern and Chinese medicine and mind / body medicine.

Integral to this medicine is a unifying philosophical approach to health summed up in the Principals of Naturopathic Medicine, which recognizes the body's innate wisdom and healing capacity (Vis Medicatrix Naturae) and the physician's role to treat disease by restoring the body to its natural and balanced state (Tolle Causum). Treatment programs integrate multiple modalities, which may include nutrition and lifestyle modification, homeopathy, botanical medicine, nutraceuticals, IV nutrient therapy, and when warranted, pharmaceutical intervention. ND's begin with the least invasive therapies and proceed to higher levels of intervention only as necessary. This approach is outlined in what is called "The Therapeutic Order"

The Principles Of Naturopathic Medicine:

1. First Do No Harm, Primum Non Nocere – this principle is at the basis of any medical professional. ND's follow a therapeutic order which emphasizes the use of least force necessary to restore health, using the least toxic and minimally invasive interventions and only proceeding to more toxic and invasive interventions when necessary

2. The Healing Power of Nature, Vis Medicatrix Naturae – First described by Hippocrates as the healing power of nature. It is a person's vital force within that allows an individual to overcome disease. Naturopathic Medicine recognizes an inherent ordered and intelligent self-healing process in each person. ND's act to identify and remove obstacles to healing and recovery, and to facilitate and augment this inherent self-healing process.

3. Identify and Treat the Cause, Tolle Causam – The physician seeks to identify and remove the underlying causes of illness rather than to merely eliminate or suppress symptoms …

Chiropractic Services and Alternative Medicine

Chiropractors are trained professionals who help patients predominantly in treating the musculoskeletal system. Treatment is applied without the use of medication, and often sought out to relieve back pain caused by an injury or trauma occurring over a long period of time. Patients typically experience their chiropractic treatment delivered with expert knowledge, carefulness, and high level of personal attention. Each treatment session builds on the one before.

Chiropractic Practitioners are well-known for the hands-on technique they practice adjusting discrepancies in the patient's skeletal system, particularly the spine. Chiropractors work with patients to ascertain and treat problems with the spine, nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems to help other body systems function properly. A chiropractic adjustment will most often restore the balance to your nervous system, and restore the flow of energy and information throughout the body.

Patients can seek out the services of a Chiropractor for anything from allergies, neck and shoulder pain, back pain, sports injuries, nutrition disorders, candida, chronic fatigue, digestive disorders, and fibromyalgia. Nerve issues, such as sciatica, are often treatable conditions for a Chiropractor.

A chiropractic adjustment is the art of recommending a specific force in a precise direction, applied to a vertebra that is subluxated or out of alignment. The Chiropractor identifies the source of the subluxation, determines the exact direction, and the best way to restore the dysfunction. Chiropractic adjustments affect more than just the physical well-being. Many patients claim a feeling of deepening peace and relaxation after their adjustment.

Spinal manipulation has documented use as far back as Hippocrates and the ancient Egyptians. The techniques were most often passed down from generation to generation by families of health practitioners. Spinal manipulation is completed to restore joint play at dysfunctional joints and ultimately provide balance in the muscular skeletal system. Once the restrictions are removed there is more coordinated mobility in the spine. This healing treatment is known to be safe and effective. In fact, spinal manipulation is among the most studied health care interventions, and research consistently indicate that it is remarkably safe.

A Chiropractor has a holistic approach to healing and treatment, believing that problems within these particular body systems lower a persons resistance to illness and affects how the rest of the body works. The term "Holistic" means to treat the body as a whole. A symptom of lower back pain can be the result of many types of dysfunction in the body. Treating the body as a whole often leads to long-term health benefits.

For example, Nutrition Response Testing is a non-invasive holistic treatment that will show and correct your specific nutritional imbalances. Incorporating personalized Holistic Nutrition Programs into your lifestyle, can greatly help to improve your body's immune system and get you feeling "healthy" quickly and painlessly.

Chiropractic treatment is usually associated with the term alternative medicine, which is defined as any health practice that takes the place of, or is incompatible with, conventional medicine. Often, patients see Chiropractors as an alternative to risky or costly surgery that may not …

How Holistic Medicine Is Used to Treat Cancer

Holistic Cancer Treatments

The best way to fight cancer is to not get cancer in the first place. "Easier said than done," you say. "My family has a history of cancer," you say. "Three of my friends just got cancer," you say.

This is a story I have heard many times, as, probably, have you. So how do you deal with this?

Let's take the first scenario: "My family has a history of cancer." Well, your family's history of cancer just means you need to educate yourself on the causes of cancer. Is cancer hereditary? No, it is not. Isn't there a certain gene that makes me susceptible to cancer? That has not been proven to date. What about what doctors are telling me? Unless they are cancer specialists, I would get more than one opinion.

There are many Holistic Cancer Treatments out there for you to investigate. These I have found to work for my clients.

Maintaining a proper balance in the body's pH can have a positive effect on all major body systems, including your digestive, circulatory, respiratory and immune systems. This balance promotes more oxygen affinity in the blood, thus allowing the body to function properly.

So what can we do to start to eat and live healthy? I'm going mention smoking smoking here, but that's all. You know who you are – stop smoking! The next biggest cancer threat in my opinion is soda. It is about the most acidic drink you can get. You all know that I am an alkaline water advocate. I drink between 50 and 90 ounces of alkaline water a day, but not as much as recommended by doctors who advocate alkaline water. However, if I drink one 12-ounce can of soda – diet or otherwise does not make a difference – I have to drink 400 ounces of alkaline water just to get my body back to the pH it was before drinking that one soda.

Having an acidic body greatly lowers your immune system, making you susceptible to disease and of course cancer, depending upon your other eating and drinking habits.

Back in 2011 My Ex-Wife Judy was diagnosed with Colon Cancer. I got a call from my Son Kris in California who let me know. Judy had Breast Cancer in 2002 and had a mastectomy and Chemo and Radiation Treatments. I met with Judy and her Husband Doug and let them know of the health benefits of Alkaline Water. Judy started drinking 2.5 gallons of 9.5 ph. alkaline water a week. She did this for over one year. She had the tumor removed on her colon but refused chemo and radiation as it was hard on her body and immune system the last time around. Judy is Cancer free today.

Here are some foods to make your body more alkaline: lemons, watermelon, limes, grapefruit, mangos and papayas. Frozen lemons grated over salads or hot cereals are great and very alkaline. Use the whole lemon when freezing. This is …

Heartburn Medicine – Tips For Effective Relief

Heartburn medicine: it's all the same, isn't it?

According to the advertisements, they all work wonderfully. Rolaids, Pepcid, Prilosec, Prevacid. But is not there some sort of difference between antacids and The Purple Pill? What about over-the-counter medications as compared to prescription drugs?

Not only is there a difference in how these medications work, there is a great difference in price. Knowing what to use can not only alleviate your symptoms, but spare your wallet as well.

For occasional symptoms of heartburn, for example those related to eating a spicy meal, several options exist. If you know ahead of time that the food you're planning to eat will cause heartburn, pre-treatment is the best answer. Both the over-the-counter H2-blockers (Pepcid, Zantac, Axid, and Tagamet) and the proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) (Prilosec, Prevacid) are effective. The PPIs are stronger but the H2-blockers are cheaper. For most people, any of these will work. Generally speaking, they take at least an hour to begin decreasing acid production. Unlike antacids (Rolaids, Maalox, Tums) they must first be absorbed into your blood stream to work.

If you forget to pre-medicate, you can certainly take any of these medications once symptoms begin. The antacids neutralize stomach acid on contact and provide the quickest relief. (Remember your high school chemistry?) However, as more acid is produced, more antacid will be needed. Pepcid Complete contains both famotidine and a combination of two antacids (calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide). The antacids work to neutralize stomach acid until the famotidine has a chance to be absorbed and decrease acid production. The same can be accomplished less expensively by using generic famotidine or ranitidine (generic Zantac) along with a generic antacid.

Some patients complain that the H2-blockers (Pepcid, Zantac, Axid, and Tagamet) are ineffective. These medications decrease stomach acid production on the order of 50%. The OTC medications are about half the milligram strength as prescription versions, but are the same drugs. Generics of Zantac, Axid, Pepcid, and Tagamet are still available by prescription, and may actually cost less than over-the-counter medication – a month's supply may cost as little as $ 4.

The PPIs (Prilosec, Prevacid) decrease acid output by as much as 90%. In the past few years, two have gone over the counter, while several others remain by prescription (Aciphex, Protonix, Dexilant, Nexium). They all work about the same, although certain patients seem to obtain greater relief from one or the other. The OTC versions cost $ 20- $ 30 a month, compared to well over $ 100 for prescription medication.

One problem with having these medications over the counter is the danger of disguising a serious problem. The OTC medications warn you to see your doctor if symptoms persist beyond a few weeks, which is certainly good advice. You don't want to camouflage a serious ulcer or a cancerous condition. If you need occasional relief from heartburn, using over-the-counter medication is fine. If it's a daily problem, be sure to see your physician to rule out a …

Preventive Medicine Failure: The Flint Michigan Example

The crucial role of preventive medicine is usually not quite apparent until there is a costly blatant failure as presently exemplified at Flint Michigan. The dangerous effect of lead poisoning on modern society is so well recognized that homes and public water supply systems built in the US in the last two decades have been totally free of lead pipes.

Older homes and public water supply systems have either been repiped or demolished for obvious safety reasons. Cities that are unable to identify all their old lead pipe connections use corrosion control to protect inner lining of city water pipes. When these basic preventive measures (Kemper, Alex et al, 2007) were overlooked in Flint Michigan, a huge water crisis quickly developed.

Flint City had been buying healthy Huron Lake water treated at Detroit water plants for over fifty years prior to 2013. But in 2013 the city voted to switch over to a cheaper water pipeline being built to Lake Huron. This caused Detroit City to abruptly cancel their water supply contract leaving Flint without water supply.

On April 25, 2014, in a desperate move to maintain water supply to 100,000 Flint citizens Darnell Earley, an emergency city manager, appointed by Governor Rick Snyder, decided (Reissman, DB et al, 2001) to switch their water supply to the corrosive Flint river water, without corrosion control and against expert warning. Experts had recommended a short term contract renewal with Detroit City to by Flint City the time it needed for lead pipe replacement and corrosion control, at an estimated cost of 1.5 million dollars. But that recommendation was overtaken by even

Soon after the switch Flint household started reporting fowl odor from their tap water, along with brown discoloration. The local DEQ tested and confirmed E. Coli in Flint watersystem. Chlorine was introduced into the water system to clear the bacteria, and citizens were reassured that the city water safe. By January 2015, a toxic level of chlorine byproducts, Total Trihalomethanes (TTHM) was reported in the Flint water system.

Between April and June 4014, Flint residents started reporting deeper browning of their tap water, hair loss, and neurological symptoms in their kids. The DEQ tested samples of Flint City water and said it met federal standards of <5 parts per million of lead (Handler, Phoebe, etal, 2016). It even went as far as reporting to EPA that Flint City was compliant in their use of erosion control, which was not true.

Flint citizens became suspicious of their DEQ, and started conducting their own water testing and blood testing for lead (Carty Denise C. et al, 2016). The found toxic levels of lead in their tap water. Dr. Mona Hanna-Attisha a pediatrician at Hurley Medical Center, also discovered a rise in the number of school kids with high blood lead from 2.9% – 4.9% since the switch in April 2014. So they invited an expert, Dr. Edwards, a city water lead control advocate, from Virginia Tech to come and test their tap water …