Tag: Infection


Could the Third Amendment Protect Against Infection?

The Third Amendment is a remix of ideas dating back to the 11th and 12th centuries. As the lawyers William S. Fields and David T. Hardy wrote in the American Journal of Legal History, centuries of criticism against quartering had accrued in Britain before gaining traction in the empire’s colonies. After conflicts in North America, including King Philip’s War in the 1670s, New York in 1683 became the first of the colonies to provide legal protections against quartering. In the next century, colonists opposed to quartering would come to feel a desire to separate civilian life from military intrusion, a growing sense that the home was a protected private place, a hatred of standing armies, and a commitment to individual rights.

But another complaint also surfaced during the French and Indian War, which lasted from 1754 to 1763: Colonists worried that quartered soldiers might infect them with smallpox, a disease British soldiers deliberately transmitted to Native Americans.

The eventual Framers of the Constitution understood this fear. George Washington had battled smallpox himself in Barbados in 1751. The mother of Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, another signer of the Constitution, wrote of her community in 1760 that a “violent kind of smallpox rages in Charles Town that almost puts a stop to all business.” James Madison never contracted the disease, but as suggested by the Madison biographer Ralph Ketcham, a number of his extended family members likely died from smallpox in the early 1760s, when he was just a boy.

No wonder colonists fretted about the arrival of British troops. When residents of Albany, New York, learned in 1756 that some of the soldiers were carrying smallpox, they grew hostile to quartering. Soldiers arrived in Philadelphia to similar fears. In the words of one Pennsylvanian, “The small Pox was encreasing among the Soldiers to such a Degree that the whole Town would soon become a Hospital.” The governor ordered private homes to be used as quarters, and after resistance from shocked residents and the Pennsylvania Assembly, the British threatened to send soldiers to seize shelter. In response, an assembly committee that included Benjamin Franklin offered hospital space to house sick soldiers, sparing Philadelphians from the disease. Others weren’t so lucky. In 1758, Jane Webb Syer from Perth Amboy, New Jersey, was making a living by renting her house to a family, but British soldiers with smallpox transformed the house into a hospital. They ripped up her floors and doors for firewood; her tenants ran away.

Britain soon enacted two quartering laws. The Quartering Act of 1765 required colonists to pay the costs of housing soldiers, a measure that peeved Franklin. England, he argued, should “first try the effects of quartering soldiers on butchers, bakers, or other private houses [in England], and then transport the measure to America.” Britain then passed the Quartering Act of 1774, allowing officers to take “uninhabited houses, out-houses, barns, or other buildings.” The Declaration of Independence

Coronavirus Vaccine ‘Unlikely’ To Stop Infection Of COVID-19, Top UK Scientist Says


  • A UK chief scientific adviser said a vaccine will unlikely eradicate the novel coronavirus
  • His best assessment is that COVID-19 “will look more like an annual flu”
  • His comments come as the UK prepares to launch a human challenge vaccine trial

A coronavirus vaccine is unlikely to prevent the spread of the virus and stop it from becoming an endemic, according to Patrick Vallance, chief scientific adviser to the U.K. government. 

The British physician on Monday said none of the potential vaccines currently in late-stage trials might be able to eradicate COVID-19. 

During a meeting with the National Security Strategy Committee, Vallance said it is unlikely that the world will receive a sterilizing vaccine that can completely stop the infection. He also noted that only smallpox has been “truly eradicated” by highly effective vaccines. 

“The notion of eliminating COVID from anywhere is not right, because it will come back,” Vallance said. “We can’t be certain, but I think it’s unlikely we will end up with a truly sterilizing vaccine; [that is] something that completely stops infection, and it’s likely this disease will circulate and be endemic, that’s my best assessment.”

According to Intermountain Healthcare, the word “endemic” means it has a constant presence in a particular community or country. Such is the case with malaria, which is endemic to parts of Africa.

“Clearly as management becomes better, as you get vaccination which would decrease the chance of infection and the severity of disease … this then starts to look more like annual flu than anything else, and that may be the direction we end up going,” Vallance added.

His comments come as the U.K. prepares to launch a controversial human challenge trial where young and healthy volunteers between ages 18 and 30 would be intentionally exposed to COVID-19 to test the vaccine’s effectiveness. 

According to ABC News, the experiment will be conducted in a quarantine ward in a hospital located in North London. Participants will be asked to inhale a diluted dose of the virus. They will be monitored by scientists and doctors, including Andrew Catchpole, the chief scientist of hVIVO. The company will run the trials in collaboration with the British government. 

“So the virus, which we would inoculate them with, has been manufactured to the very high standards, a medical grade version of the virus that undergoes very high regulatory scrutiny to make sure that that virus is safe and suitable for use — just like you would expect for any other licensed medicine,” he said. 

Companies and governments are racing to develop vaccines in a bid to arrest the pandemic Companies and governments are racing to develop vaccines in a bid to arrest the pandemic Photo: AFP / Yasin AKGUL

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India Infection Peak Seen; Green Lane Travel: Virus Update

(Bloomberg) — European leaders intensified efforts to tamp down surging infections, with Ireland enacting severe restrictions. Soaring cases in U.S. battleground states pose a challenge for President Donald Trump two weeks before the election.


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India has already seen a peak in the number of new infections and may be able to contain the world’s second-largest outbreak by February, according to a government panel of scientists, though it also warns the upcoming festival and winter seasons may increase the susceptibility to the virus. The Philippines shortened curfew hours in Manila and eased the stay-at-home order to further reopen its economy.

Discussions to open up travel for business purposes continue to take place in Asia, with the governments of Japan and China reportedly close to an agreement to resume business travel between the countries as soon as this week.

Key Developments:

Global Tracker: Cases top 40.2 million; deaths exceed 1.1 millionSee the latest on the race for a vaccine with Bloomberg’s trackerTrading floors are full and masks are off in post-Covid ShanghaiFear of job loss haunt half the world’s workers as crisis ragesCDC issues ‘strong’ call for masks on U.S. airplanes, trainsHow do people catch Covid-19? Here’s what experts say: QuickTake

Subscribe to a daily update on the virus from Bloomberg’s Prognosis team here. Click CVID on the terminal for global data on coronavirus cases and deaths.


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Japan, China Near Agreement to Resume Business Travel (7:29 a.m. HK)

The governments of Japan and China will agree to resume business travel between the countries as soon as this week, Yomiuri reports, citing an unidentified Japanese government official.

Those planning long stays will be required to undergo 14 day quarantine, but will be exempt for short stays provided certain conditions are met

Texas Hospitals Strain to Cope in Newest Hotspots (7:27 a.m. HK)

Almost one-fourth of all hospital beds in the El Paso, Texas, area are occupied by virus patients and the region with almost 1 million residents has just 16 intensive-care beds available, state health department data showed.

In the state’s newest hotspots of El Paso, Lubbock, Amarillo and Laredo, hospitals’ virus loads are approaching or already above the 15% threshhold set forth by Governor Greg Abbott for emergency status.

Meanwhile, data lags continue to dog efforts to track the trajectory of the outbreak in the second-largest US state. On Monday, the state disclosed 2,440 previously uncounted cases, a tally which outnumbered the actual figure for new daily detections by more than 7%.

CDC Urges Masks While on Transit (6:41 a.m. HK)

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has issued a “strong recommendation” for mask-wearing by both passengers and operators on planes, trains, buses and taxis to prevent the spread of the coronavirus.

Masks should cover a person’s nose and mouth and be worn while traveling in and out of the U.S. as well as within the country, the agency said. Operators should require them for the entire time of travel and deny entry to anyone not

Fitness Influencer Dmitriy Stuzhuk Who Told His Followers Coronavirus Wasn’t Real, Dies of the Infection at 33

Fitness influencer Dmitriy Stuzhuk who had contracted coronavirus has passed away at the age of 33. Stuzhuk’s wife Sofia Stuzhuk confirmed the news of his death in an Instagram post on Saturday. The couple has three children. Stuzhuk earlier believed that COVID-19 was not real but recently in a social media post updated his followers that he was down with coronavirus after thinking that the infection was not real. The fitness influencer seems to have been infected with the virus during a trip to Turkey and was getting treatment for the disease in his native Ukraine. 9 Top Influencers You Should Follow in 2020.

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Detailing his experience, he wrote on social media, he wrote, “I felt bad on the second day in Turkey. I woke up in the middle of the night because my neck was swollen and it was hard to breathe. At the same time, my stomach ached a little. The next day, a cough began to appear, but there was no temperature. There were no particular symptoms of the disease either, so I thought that these could be consequences after playing sports, changing the climate and nutrition, and plus sleeping under air conditioning. After returning from Turkey, I immediately went to take various tests, do an ultrasound scan and, just in case, decided to take a COVID test. It turned out to be positive.” Ex-Porn Star Zoe Parker Dies ‘In Her Sleep’; Know More About the Former Adult Actress Who Was About to Start a New Life with Her Family.

Fitness Influencer Dmitriy Stuzhuk on Testing COVID-19 Positive:

Also Read | India Reports 61,871 COVID-19 Cases, 1,033 Deaths in Single Day; Coronavirus Tally Inches Closer to 75 Lakh-Mark

As the hospital was full of patients, Dmitriy ended up being up the hospital as it was “more convenient and comfortable”. But he had to be taken back to the hospital as Sofia said that he was in a “grave condition”. She said that he had cardiovascular problems. He added, “His heart is not coping. His state is extremely grave. No one can do anything with this.” Shortly after the incident, he passed away. Anastasia Tropitsel, Russian Social Media Influencer With Over Million Followers Dies in Bike Accident in Bali.

Taking to social media about husband’s death, Sofia said that they did not share a good relationship but had gone through good and bad situations together. She writes, “We have lived and experienced so much with you. You were there in sorrow and in joy… I will remain grateful to you for the rest of my life for our three beautiful children.”

Sofia further writes, “We were no longer together, but it hurts me no less. I am so sorry… I’m sorry. Thank you for everything, my important person, my main teacher, my guide, the father of my children. You are our

How one Virginia doctor’s coronavirus infection led to 25 people in quarantine

A doctor in training who wasn’t feeling well went into work.

The attending physician who supervised the Eastern Virginia Medical School resident sent the new doctor home. A little later, the doctor started to feel better and went to a barbecue with about 25 people.

The next day, when that doctor returned to work, another supervisor noticed the resident wasn’t well and sent the employee home. But that didn’t stop the doctor from going to a wedding of about 75 guests.

When the doctor’s condition worsened, the resident finally reported to the health center and got tested for the coronavirus. The nasal swab sample came back positive, which triggered a series of contact-tracing interviews to determine who might have been exposed.

EVMS leaders say the incident, which happened in July during a surge in Hampton Roads, is an example of the cascading effect one person’s infection can have, and the daunting task public health officials, institutions and employers face in trying to contain the disease from spreading further.

It also highlights the risk health professionals face in transmitting COVID-19 in clinical settings. The school recently used the story to emphasize to its students, staff and faculty the importance of wearing masks and social distancing on and off campus.

“That one individual’s behavior had about five different points where a different decision could have been made,” said Donald Combs, vice president and dean of the School of Health Professions at EVMS.

The doctor-in-training was in touch with about 100 different people, 25 of whom met the criteria for close contact and had to be put in quarantine for two weeks. Combs put it another way: That’s the equivalent of one full-time physician missing a year of work, he said.

Health departments use case investigations and so-called “contact tracing” as tools to prevent the spread of contagious diseases. People who work as disease detectives interview sick people about their whereabouts and try to reach as many people as they can who could have been infected. Then, they give them tips on how to get tested and stop passing it on to others.

Virginia contact tracers were in touch with about 81% of cases within 24 hours of the diagnosis last week, according to Virginia Department of Health data, though the goal is to reach everyone. Close to 8,500 people are under public health monitoring based on those investigations.

Close contact is usually defined as being within 6 feet of a person with COVID-19 for at least 15 minutes or having exposure to the person’s coughs, sneezes or kisses while they were infectious. Research shows that a person’s contagious period could range from one to two days before a person noticed symptoms or tested positive to seven or eight days after. For mild cases of the coronavirus, the CDC is recommending that patients isolate for 10 days after their symptoms started.

For years, the state health department has conducted case investigations for other infectious diseases, like measles and tuberculosis. But the

U.S. Surpasses 8 Million Coronavirus Cases, Dr. Fauci Warns of High Infection Rates Going into Winter

Emmanuele Ciancaglini/NurPhoto via Getty Images

The United States officially surpassed 8 million coronavirus cases as of Friday, according to data from Johns Hopkins University.

More than 218,000 people in the country have now died due to the virus, and cases are continuing to rise in nearly every state.

There were 70,451 new cases of coronavirus on Friday, the highest daily case count since July, The New York Times’ COVID-19 database shows. The Midwest has been particularly hard hit in recent months, but the latest wave has spared no region of the U.S.

Areas that have remained relatively stable since the initial wave of virus infections in the spring, including the Northeast and Pacific Northwest, are now also seeing increasing numbers.

Evan Vucci/AP/Shutterstock Dr. Anthony Fauci

RELATED: Midwestern Hospitals Are ‘Bursting at the Seams’ with COVID Patients as Cases Continue to Soar

Dr. Anthony Fauci, the director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, warned that infection rates across the country are too high as we head into the colder fall and winter months.

“You can’t enter into the cool months of the fall and the cold months of the winter with a high community infection baseline,” Fauci said in a John Hopkins virtual event on Friday, according to CNN.

Earlier in the week, Fauci similarly said the rise in cases is “not a good sign as you’re entering into the colder weather,” advising Americans to consider canceling family gatherings for Thanksgiving and other upcoming holidays.

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RELATED: Fauci Says Americans Should Consider Canceling Thanksgiving as COVID Cases Soar

“That is, unfortunately, a risk, when you have people coming from out of town, gathering together in an indoor setting,” he told host Norah O’Donnell on CBS Evening News Wednesday night. “It is unfortunate, because that’s such a sacred part of American tradition — the family gathering around Thanksgiving. But that is a risk.”

Fauci continued, “Given the fluid and dynamic nature of what’s going on right now in the spread and the uptick of infections, I think people should be very careful and prudent about social gatherings, particularly when members of the family might be at a risk because of their age or their underlying condition. You may have to bite the bullet and sacrifice that social gathering, unless you’re pretty certain that the people that you’re dealing with are not infected.”

As information about the coronavirus pandemic rapidly changes, PEOPLE is committed to providing the most recent data in our coverage. Some of the information in this story may have changed after publication. For the latest on COVID-19, readers are encouraged to use online resources from the WHO and local public health departments. PEOPLE has partnered with GoFundMe to raise money for

Frozen Food Package Polluted by Living Coronavirus Could Cause Infection, China’s CDC Says | Top News

BEIJING (Reuters) – China’s disease control authority said on Saturday that contact with frozen food packaging contaminated by living new coronavirus could cause infection.

The conclusion came as the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) detected and isolated living coronavirus on the outer packaging of frozen cod during efforts to trace the virus in an outbreak reported last week in the city of Qingdao, the agency said on its website.

The finding, a world first, suggests it is possible for the virus to be conveyed over long distances via frozen goods, it said.

Two dock workers in Qingdao who were initially diagnosed as asymptomatic infections in September brought the virus to a chest hospital during quarantine due to insufficient disinfection and protection, leading to another 12 infections linked to the hospital, authorities said last week.

However, the CDC’s latest statement does not show solid proof that the two workers in Qingdao caught the virus from the packaging directly, rather than contracting the virus from somewhere else and then contaminating the food packaging they handled, said Jin Dong-Yan, a virology professor at the University of Hong Kong.

The CDC said no instance had been found of any consumer contracting the virus by having contact with frozen food and the risk of this happening remained very low.

Nonetheless it advised that workers who handle, process and sell frozen products should avoid direct skin contact with products that could possibly be polluted.

Staff should not touch their mouth or nose before taking off work garments that could possibly be contaminated without washing their hands and should take tests regularly, the agency said.

Prior to the CDC’s latest findings genetic traces of the virus had been found in some samples taken from frozen food or food packaging, but the amount of virus was low and no living virus was isolated, the agency said.

Only living virus can infect people, while samples containing dead virus could also test positive for virus traces, Jin said.

(Reporting by Roxanne Liu and Tony Munroe; Editing by David Holmes)

Copyright 2020 Thomson Reuters.

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Fauci warns that Covid-19 infection rates are too high heading into winter

The number of coronavirus cases in the United States surpassed 8 million on Friday as health officials from coast to coast scramble to contain the rising rate of infections.

a person wearing a blue hat: Melissa Leaston Director of nursing at Whittier Street Health Center swabs a patient at a COVID testing site in Nubian Square on October 15, 2020 in Roxbury, Massachusetts.

© Matt Stone/Media News Group/Boston Herald
Melissa Leaston Director of nursing at Whittier Street Health Center swabs a patient at a COVID testing site in Nubian Square on October 15, 2020 in Roxbury, Massachusetts.

The case numbers are steadily increasing daily, according to data from Johns Hopkins University.

The country has averaged more than 53,000 new daily cases for the past week — an increase of more than 55% in just over a month — and Friday’s caseload was not the exception, according to Johns Hopkins data.

Unlike previous rises, this time it appears that no region is safe. The Northeast, which has remained relatively stable since the spring, is seeing a rise in cases as is the Pacific Northwest. The increases come as the numbers of new cases in the Midwest hasn’t slowed.

At least four states — Idaho, Illinois, North Carolina and Wyoming — reported their highest daily Covid-19 case count to date on Friday, state health officials said.

Dr. Anthony Fauci, the nation’s top infectious disease expert, warned that infection rates are far too high heading into the end of the year. Other experts say is setting the country up for a very difficult winter.

“You can’t enter into the cool months of the fall and the cold months of the winter with a high community infection baseline,” Fauci said in a John Hopkins virtual event posted Friday.

CVS and Walgreens to distribute approved vaccines, officials say

While the US faces a new rise in cases, the Trump administration discussed some of its plans for vaccine distribution.

Federal officials confirmed Friday that CVS and Walgreens pharmacies have been designated to distribute free coronavirus vaccines, once they are approved, to long-term care facilities.

The partnership is expected to help “jurisdictions solve a logistical hurdle and decrease the burden of distributing, administering, and reporting COVID-19 vaccination for both states and long-term care facilities,” said Dr. Robert Redfield, director for the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in a statement.

The retailers are best placed to send out mobile units to vaccinate seniors and other vulnerable people on site, said Paul Mango, deputy chief of staff for policy at the Health and Human Services Department, said during a Friday telephone briefing with reporters.

Earlier on Friday, President Donald Trump said seniors would be the first to get any vaccine once one is approved.

“Seniors will be the first in line for the vaccine and we will soon be ending this pandemic,” Trump said during a visit to Ft. Myers, Florida.

No coronavirus vaccines have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration so far but the CDC posted an optimistic forecast about coronavirus vaccines Wednesday, promising some vaccines by the end of the year.

Dr. Francis Collins, director of the National Institutes of Health, said he’s still “pretty

Alternative Medicine Treatment for C. Difficile Infection

This article might be for you or someone you love, it is for sufferers that are looking for help. Clostridium difficile has other names such as CDF, C. diff, antibiotic-associated colitis; colitis – pseudomembranous; necrotizing colitis. Unfortunately, common treatment of the C. difficile with antibiotics cannot prevent from relapses.

This opportunistic infection causes diarrhea and it is linked to 14,000 American deaths each year, and this is only official statistic.

Some researchers suggest that the C. diff is linked to more than 30,000 deaths per year in the United States, and it strikes about half a million of Americans annually. It is truly a superbug. Why is C. diff a superbug? For now, in the battle between antibiotics' and C. difficile, victory is on the side of the resistant species of this microbe.

Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a bacterium that causes watery diarrhea, bloody stool, fever, nausea, abdominal pain, or cramps. C. difficile may cause serious intestinal conditions such as colon inflammation (colitis).

People in good health do not generally get sick from C. difficile. Usually we can get Clostridium from food and water.10 percentage of the population has this microbe in the gut without noticeable symptoms. A healthy person has a defense mechanism that protects him or her from this superbug.

Doctors and researchers are unanimous that C. difficile occurs mostly after taking broad-spectrum antibiotics, and usually it is an assault on people with low immune system such as young kids, elderly people and people after serious surgeries, chemotherapy, radiation, AIDS, alcoholics ', etc. Many of them had a C.difficile bacterium in their body before taking antibiotics, but they felt OK.

Most of the specialists agree that prolong use of the broad-spectrum antibiotic triggers C. diff infection by destroying the friendly intestinal flora. These microorganisms are called friendly, because "Enemy of my enemy is my friend". Friendly intestinal flora is our best guard from nasty microorganisms, such as microbes, Candida-yeast, and parasites.

Dysbiosis is the condition where friendly intestinal flora is gone, and opportunistic infection takes over gastrointestinal tract (Candida-yeast overgrowth, Small Intestine Bacterial Overgrowth; SIBO) .There is a lot of information about dysbiosis, which I described in my eBook: healthy pancreas , healthy you.

C. difficile is the opportunistic infection that grows when it has the opportunity to grow. Harmful intestinal bacteria, Candida-yeast, and parasites will cause damage to the wall of your gut, thus making it vulnerable to multiplying (colonization) of the C. diff This superbug does not act alone. There is increasing evidence that certain other species of opportunistic infection such as Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, Candida-yeast, parasites, etc also responsible for symptoms of antibiotic-associated diarrhea.

When you just kill the C. difficile with the strong, broad-spectrum antibiotics or other antimicrobial agents the relief will be temporary. Medically speaking, without restoration of the body's natural defense mechanisms, the victory over these bacteria is difficult to get. Clostridium difficile infection causes many damages to the body systems; Therefore, there is no magic bullet for this condition. There are …